This Frequently asked Questions section answers most questions you may have about the upgrading of informal settlements in South Africa including why is it needed and how does it work.  The Xhosa translation can be found below the English version.

Informal settlements are places where people who don’t have a house build temporary houses for themselves on land that they do not have formal permission to use and there are no proper roads, water or toilets in the area.

Informal settlements usually start when people can’t afford to buy their own land and houses and there are not enough government subsidised houses available. These people then occupy, without permission, land that they find and build their own houses.

Government has acknowledged that informal settlements are a reality and they recognise that in-situ upgrading is a necessity.

The upgrading of informal settlements is where government helps people living in informal settlements to improve their living conditions over time on the land where they are already living.

Upgrading of informal settlements does not include the upgrading of shacks in backyards.

Also, if government moves people out of an informal settlement into a new RDP (government subsidised) house this is not the upgrading of an informal settlement because you are not improving the settlement over time where people are living.  This is called building new government subsidised housing.

The United Nations defines informal settlements as “residential” areas where:

  • inhabitants have no security of tenure in relation to the land or dwellings they inhabit, including squatting and informal rental housing
  • the neighbourhoods usually lack, or are cut off from, basic services and city infrastructure and
  • the housing may not comply with current planning and building regulations, and is often situated in geographically and environmentally hazardous areas.

This can be summarised as settlements where people:

  • do not have a right to stay on the land
  • do not have proper water, sanitation and other services
  • live in a house that does not have planning and building approval

If any of these applies then that settlement can be categorised as an informal settlement:

  • No land – bad services – bad house
  • No land – bad services – good house
  • No land – good services – bad house
  • Land – bad services – bad house
  • No land – good services – good house
  • Land – bad service – good house
  • Land – good service – bad house

An informal settlement is no longer an informal settlement if it has:

  • Land – good services – good house

There are two main reasons for why we need the upgrading of informal settlements:

  1. We need upgrading of informal settlements because there is not enough money in government’s budget to build everyone a nice RDP house within a short period of time. It has been estimated by the National Upgrading Support Programme (NUSP) that it will take more than 32 years for government to build RDP houses for all the people that were living in informal settlements in 2018 with the money that is available.  This does not take into account any new households that will need to get a house over this period.
  2. The constitutional court has ruled in cases like the Grootboom judgement of 2000 and the Joe Slovo case of 2010 that government must make sure that everyone has access to at least basic level services of water and sanitation and that over time peoples’ conditions are improved until everyone has access to adequate housing.

These constitutional court cases are based on the constitution of South Africa.  There are a number of clauses in the constitution which lead the constitutional court to make these judgements.

SECTION 9 (1) says that everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. (2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms.

Informal settlements example: We cannot have situations where some people benefit from having access to toilets where others don’t.

SECTION 10 says that everyone has inherent dignity and the right to have their dignity respected and protected.

Informal settlements example: We cannot continue to have people living in undignified situations where they have to defecate in the bush.

SECTION 24 says that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or wellbeing, and through reasonable legislative and other measures, the right to an environment that prevents pollution while still promoting justifiable economic and social development.

Informal settlements example: People can’t live in situations where their health is compromised by being exposed to faeces and other pollutants in the air, water and soil.

SECTION 25 (5) says that the state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to foster conditions which enable citizens to gain access to land on an equitable basis.  SUB-SECTION (6) goes on to say that a person or community whose tenure of land is legally insecure as a result of past racially discriminatory laws or practices is entitled, to the extent provided by an Act of Parliament, either to tenure which is legally secure or to comparable redress.  SUB SECTION (9) says that Parliament must enact the legislation referred to in SUB-SECTION (6).

Informal settlements example: Government must have a programme like the upgrading of informal settlement programme and use it to help people get land in a fair way.  Government must also find ways to increase tenure security over time.

SECTION 26 (1) says that everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing and SUB-SECTION (2) says that the state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.

Informal settlements example: The constitution realises that it is unlikely that government will have enough money to make sure everyone has adequate housing all at once so it says that government can work in a progressive, phased and step by step basis to achieve adequate housing.  In informal settlements this step by step – or incremental – process which involves starting to provide basic water, sanitation and other services and then over time improve the quality of these services and look to help people get adequate housing.

SECTION 26 (3) says that no-one may be evicted from their home, or have their home demolished, without an order of court made after considering all the relevant circumstances. No legislation may permit arbitrary evictions.

Informal settlement example: Government must follow law (like following the procedures found in the Prevention of Illegal Eviction from and unlawful occupation of Land Act, no. 19 of 1998.) when it comes to removing people from an informal settlement.

SECTION 27 (1) (B) says that everyone has the right to have access to sufficient water;  and SUB-SECTION (2) says that the state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.

Informal settlement example: Government must use what resources it has to ensure that people have at least some basic minimum level of water and then over time, in a progressive, phased and step by step basis, incrementally improve the quality and level of access.

An often overlooked clause in the constitution that is relevant for informal settlements SECTION 28 (1) (C) which says that every child has the right to shelter.  It is interesting to note that the word shelter and not housing is used, and that this clause is bound by the requirement to provide such shelter on a progressive basis within available resources.

Informal settlement example: Government must make sure that shelter is provided to households with children (defined in the constitution to be people under the age of 18 years).

In normal RDP housing subsidy projects people must qualify to get a RDP house.  For example, they must be South African, earn more than R3 500/ month, and not have owned a house before, to name just a few.   (See next section for more detail on these criteria)

The upgrading of informal settlements programme is different in that anyone who lives in an informal settlement is able to benefit and get access to services and to piece of land from which they cannot be evicted.  This includes people in households that earn more than R3 500/ month, people who have received a subsidy before, single households and even foreign nationals (although the names of these people are supposed to be handed over to home affairs).

It must be noted that only people who qualify for a housing subsidy can get government funds to build a top structure (or house), and also get title deeds to the land they occupy.  This is explained further on in this FAQ.

To qualify for an RDP house and to get title deeds you must meet the National Housing Subsidy Scheme criteria. This means you must be:

  • A South African citizen
  • Over 21 and mentally competent to sign a contract
  • Married or living with a partner, or single and have dependants (single military veterans or aged people without dependents also qualify)
  • Earn less than R3,500 per month per household (so if two people in your family earn and these earnings amount to more than R3,500 per month you will not qualify)
  • A first time government subsidy recipient
  • A first time home owner
  • If you are disabled you are supposed to be given preference and your house is supposed to be adapted to meet your needs.

There  are four key features:

  • Incrementalism
  • Tenure security
  • Participation
  • Partnerships

Incrementalism

The upgrading of informal settlements happens incrementally in a step by step process over time.  For example at the start, communal water and sanitation ablution blocks can be provided for every 20 households and then, over time, more ablution blocks can be built so there is one ablution per 5 households. In the long term, the intention is to get to one toilet and water connection per household.

Tenure Security

Building on the concept of incrementalism, the upgrading of informal settlements does not necessarily mean that people will immediately get title deeds.  Over time, government will find ways to improve people’s land tenure security, where they are able to stay in the informal settlement while at the same time knowing what they are able to do on the land and knowing that they will not be removed from the land without government following proper legal processes to move them.

The National Upgrading Support Programme identifies three categories of tenure recognition that can be seen as part of a continuum, moving from less tenure to more secure tenure.

  • Local recognition refers to local practices that have been developed by the community over time to control who can live in the informal settlement such as keeping a community list.
  • Administrative recognition is, for example, where the municipality uses its administrative systems to create a list by doing a shack count and painting numbers on shacks.
  • Legal recognition is where government uses legal procedures like the town planning and land surveying laws to establish settlements and then provide lease agreements or even title deeds.

See question “What other forms of tenure can be used within the process of upgrading of informal settlements?“ to see more examples of tenure security.

Participation

The community must be involved in all phases of the upgrading of informal settlements- from the planning of how the settlement will be upgraded to monitoring that the upgrading process is implemented according to the plans.

Partnerships

All structures and organisations must work together to support the upgrading process.  The Municipality must manage the whole process.  Government departments must bring water, roads, refuse collection services, recreation facilities, small business support, and other support. NGOs and the private sector must do what they can and communities must participate in all phases of the upgrading process.

The national department of human settlements, through the NUSP have identified the following four principles that guide upgrading of informal settlement:

  • Care about the people
  • Listen to and understand the needs of the people
  • Upgrade informal settlements for health, safety and dignity
  • Act swiftly using resources available

The upgrading of informal settlements programme is designed to achieve the following objectives:

  • Tenure security – through formalising the tenure rights of informal settlement residents, so as to enhance the concept of citizenship
  • Health and security – through the provision of affordable and sustainable basic municipal engineering to the residents of informal settlements, which allows for the scaling up in future.
  • Empowerment – through the promotion of social and economic integration, building social capital though participative processes and addressing the broader social needs of the communities, so as to promote social and economic inclusion

Stay or Move

The first categorisation involves identifying those informal settlements where people will be able to stay on the land they already occupy, and those settlements where the people will need to move to a new piece of land as the land is not suitable for long term occupation.

Timeframe

The second categorisation then involves looking at how quickly the settlement will be upgraded where it is (if it can stay) or how quickly it will be moved.

When combining these two categorisations one gets a table with the following four categories.

Stay Move
Now/ Soon Category A Category C
In future Category B1 Category B2
  • Category A: The people can stay on the land and can also get a full level of services and strong tenure security now or very soon on this land.
  • Category B1: The people can stay on the land, but they initially only get basic interim services and basic tenure recognition, with full services and strong tenure security provided later on this same piece of land
  • Category B2: The people can stay on the land in the short term with access to basic emergency services and basic tenure recognition; but in the medium to long term they will be moved to more appropriate land where they could either get basic services and basic tenure recognition or they could get full services and strong tenure security.
  • Category C: The people are moved as soon as possible onto a new piece of land. On the new land people could either get full services and strong tenure security straight away or they can get interim services and basic tenure recognition.

Another way to think about upgrading is to think about how many times a household will need to move during the upgrading process.

  • No moves: This can be called ‘pure’ upgrading where the roads and services are built in-between the existing shacks and people do not have to move. This usually happens in a low density informal settlement where shacks are built far apart.
  • One move: This is also called re-blocking where the government and community try and lay out the new plots and roads in a way that only requires people to move their shack once to the piece of land that has been marked out in the original informal settlement. This is usually found in medium density informal settlements. Full re-blocking is where the whole settlements has to shift their shacks once to a new location to bring in services.  Partial re-blocking is where only some of the shacks need to shift to make space for roads and pipes etc.
  • Two moves: This is also called upgrading via a Transitional Relocation Area (TRA) where the government moves people into temporary accommodation on a new piece of land while they create plots and put in the services on the original land the person occupied. Once this is complete the household is moved back onto the original piece of land.  The TRA can ten be used by people from another informal settlement for upgrading via a TRA.   This is usually found in high density informal settlements where the shacks are all very close to each other.
  • Jump: This approach refers to households that have to move to a new piece of land.  They have to ‘jump’ to a totally new piece of land and either build their own houses (temporary or permanent) on a piece of land that is allocated to them or move into a formal house built for them (if they qualify).

The upgrading of informal settlements programme involves three phases.

  • Phase 1: Application
  • Phase 2: Project Initiation
  • Phase 3: Project Implementation

In summary:

  • Phase 1 – The (project) application phase is where the municipality motivates for upgrading of informal settlement funding.
  • Phase 2 – The project initiation phase focuses on the provision of interim or emergency basic services and some form of basic administrative tenure recognition for all B1 and B2 categorised informal settlements.
  • Phase 3 – The project implementation phase focuses on the provision of full permanent engineering services, and improving tenure security (such as pegging plots and rezoning the land) can be taken for B1 informal settlements. For B2 settlements, alternative land is identified and then at least basic interim services and administrative tenure recognition can be provided on this alternative land.

What is called phase 4, the consolidation phase, is not really a phase of the upgrading of informal settlement programme but it is an additional phase where houses are built and title deeds are provided for those people who qualify for a housing subsidy once they have been through the previous phases. For B1 settlements this will be on the land they originally occupied and for B2 settlements this will be on the new land identified for relocation.

There is also what can be termed a pre-phase (or phase 0) where the municipality does the necessary investigations to get to a stage where they are able to categorise all informal settlements in a particular municipal area, and can then start with phase 1 knowing if the settlement is a category A, B1, B2 or C settlement.

One of the unique features of the upgrading of informal settlements is that all informal settlements (besides those few that are categorised as A or C) will get either basic interim services (for B1 settlements that will stay in future), or basic emergency services (for B2 settlements that will move in future).

Examples of basic interim or emergency services include, but are not restricted to:

  • Mobile water tankers
  • Communal water standpipes
  • Communal containerised toilets
  • Communal free standing toilets
  • Basic lined storm water channels
  • Paved pedestrian paths
  • Basic gravel road access routes
  • Communal refuse collection points
  • Fire hydrants accessible to all shacks by fire hoses
  • Pre-payment electricity meters to all shacks

Interim and emergency basic services do not have to be restricted to this list. Other types of services and facilities can also be provided as part of an incremental step by step process over time.  Examples include:

  • Basic fenced play areas with some form of level playing surface
  • A basic structure to be used as an interim or emergency community hall (it could even just be a roof on poles)
  • A containerised temporary office (to be used for housing support services)

It is up to the community and municipality to motivate for and plan for more interim and emergency basic services and facilities.

The norms and standards one uses depends on which document one reads. Click here to find a table summarising water and sanitation standards from various sources.

For example, it would appear that the official norms and standards from the ‘water regulations’ of 2001 are: 

  • Water: A minimum of 25 litres per person per day (or 6 kilolitres per household per month), within 200 meters of each household. (Section 3)
  • Sanitation: a toilet that is safe, reliable, environmentally sound, easy to keep clean, provides privacy and protection against the weather, well ventilated, keeps smells to a minimum and prevents the entry and exit of flies and other disease-carrying pests. (Section 2)

Whereas the ‘Emergency housing programme‘ uses the following norms and standards:

  • one water tap every 25 families (page 36)
  • one toilet per 5 families (page 36)

The Department of Water and Sanitation (2017) in its report ‘National norms and standards for domestic water and sanitation services – version 3 finalset targets for what minimum standards are for water and sanitation.  Apparently these norms and standards however were never officially adopted by government and are therefore still draft.

Toilets

For interim communal toilets target is one toilet seat per 50 people (see page 44 of above mentioned 2017 draft norms and standards).  So assuming 4 to 5 people per household this is about one toilet seat per 10 to 13 households.  Where interim communal toilets are where “[p]eople access a pleasant, safe, reliable and well-maintained improved toilet and hand washing facility in close proximity for a period of time until a[n] … [improved] level of sanitation service can be established.

The ultimate target by 2030, when interim sanitation services should be phased out, is one toilet per household, but in instances where toilets are shared by indigent households a situation of one shared toilet per 20 people (or 4 or 5 households) can be accommodated.

Water

For water, the national norms and standards are 1500 litre of potable water per household per month, that is within 100 meters of each household (see page 22 of above mentioned 2017 draft norms and standards).  Note that this 100 meters to taps is less than the 200 meters to a tap mentioned in the 2001 norms and standards.

In situations where water-borne toilets are used, it would make sense for a water connection to be linked to each toilet.

There are also norms and standards for other services such as refuse removal, electricity and others.

Refuse removal

The national target for refuse removal is that at least one 100 litre refuse container should be available per 10 households; and that all waste generated by populations living in settlements shall be removed from the settlement environment a least once a week.

Electricity

The ultimate target for electricity connections is one pre-payment electricity meter per household, including households living in informal settlements  (with access to 50 kwh of free electricity per household per month).

Different municipalities can set their own norms and standards.  For example The City of Cape Town aims to provide one toilet per every five families, one water tap for every 25 families within a 200 m radius, and one refuse removal per week.

Many municipalities however, including, for example the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, do not have clear norms and standards for basic services particularly related to informal settlements.

Many municipalities are discussing what would be a suitable minimum standard for provision of emergency and/or temporary basic services in informal settlements, especially in category B1 and B2.  The following provides  a draft example of what some municipalities are considering:

  • Potable water: Shared water point collection point within 25 meters of all dwellings. Overflow water captured in sewers or storm water pipes.
  • Fire: Access ways provide 2.5 to 3 meter wide fire breaks and evacuation routes within 20 meters of all dwellings. Fire hose connection points /hydrants provided within 50 m of all dwellings).
  • Sewerage: Local shared toilets located within 35 meters of all dwellings.
  • Grey water: Household grey water disposal inlets within 35 meters of all dwellings
  • Storm water: All main storm water channels are identified and protected.
  • Access paths:5 to 3 meter (minimum) paved pedestrian paths with staircases and street lighting within 25 meters of all dwellings. Storm-water management infrastructure within 25 meters of all dwellings. Local overland flow routes are channelled onto the storm water system
  • Solid waste: Central refuse collection point/transfer station (concrete slab and screening or skip). Community based waste transport system like Wheelie bins, wheel barrows, etc.
  • Electricity: Poles and street lights on the main access routes. Local formal distribution system installed but designed to allow future repositioning of individual dwelling units without significant abortive costs.

For informal settlements that are to remain where they are into the future (B1 category) it is useful to give careful attention to where the basic services are located in phase 2 so that when the area is upgraded to more permanent services during phase 3 the need to remove basic services infrastructure is minimised.

For low density settlements where the shacks are located further apart and there are wider paths within the settlement, this is normally much easier as there is enough space inside the settlement to bring in water and sanitation pipes and put in communal toilets and water standpipes.

For medium to high density settlements where the shacks are much closer together and the paths between shacks are often narrow, it is much harder to find space to bring interim services into the settlement.

One option is to locate the communal water standpipes and communal/ shared toilets on the edge of the settlement.  This makes it easier for the municipality to bring these services and does not disrupt shacks within the settlement.  The problem is that people who live in the middle of the settlement will have to walk further to get to the services.

Another option is to identify a grid or frame of potential future main paths through the settlement and then route pipes along this frame and locate communal taps and toilets within this grid.  In many instances this may require some shacks to be shifted or even moved completely out of the settlement to widen the paths along the frame and open up space for communal water and toilets. This is sometimes called partial re-blocking and may be a challenge to organise but it is easier to move a few people at this stage rather than moving the whole settlement.

For category B2 settlements that will move in future, it is not as important to position emergency basic services in a way that allows for future upgrading as these settlements will be relocated.  What is more important is to provide basic services that minimise the abortive costs when the settlement is moved.  In other words rather provide a containerised communal toilet that can be moved when the settlement is moved.

Government has a constitutional obligation to address people’s dignity and progressively realise their right to water, a healthy environment and housing. This means that government must start by providing people with access to basic emergency and temporary services. Progressively, in a step by step manner, as resources become available, government can improve the level of services and tenure security of these people and work towards the achievement of adequate housing.

This means that even if the people living on the land or government do not own the land, government is still constitutionally obliged to provide access to emergency or interim basic services.

The housing subsidy phases are designed in such a way that government can provide emergency and temporary basic services in phase 2.  More detailed planning and land surveying only happens in phase 3 after the basic services are provided.  More permanent services are also only provided in phase 3.

When installing the basic services, the municipality must consider the need to remove these services (for category B2 settlements) or somehow include the use of these services within the upgraded settlement. This means, for example, that modular and temporary sanitation and other services should be used where possible so they can be moved if needed. However, it is recognised that in some situations there will be the need to remove previous services if these services are located in an area that proves not to be suitable after more detailed planning is conducted. This would not be seen as wasteful expenditure as it was installed to address a basic constitutionally guaranteed need.

If the municipality puts basic services on land it does not own it must be able to show the courts, if the existing land owner objects, that the:

  • municipality has a long term programme to address informal settlements in a systematic way, over time. This includes, for example, categorising all informal settlements and showing which settlements will be provided with basic and emergency services first as part of phase 2 of the upgrading programme and when they will move to phase 2.
  • existing occupiers of the land have participated in and been kept informed about what plans are being developed for the informal settlement.
  • existing owners of the occupied land have been informed of what the plans are for either upgrading the settlement where it is or relocating the settlement to a new piece of land when the alternative land is ready.

See section 6.3 on page 136 of “Preparing to scale up informal settlement upgrading in South Africa” for more information on providing basic services on land one does not own.

According to the upgrading of informal settlements subsidy quantum from April 2018 there is just less than R30,000 per household available for phases 1, 2 and 3 of the upgrading of informal settlement programme.  There is also an additional about R1,500 per household to assist with relocation of households where necessary (meaning, for example, paying for transport costs to move peoples building material and household goods if this is needed).

Other housing programmes like the enhanced Peoples Housing Process and the Integrated Residential Development Programme can be used to buy the land transfer title deeds as well as build a house. The subsidy quantum amount is just under R117,000 per house to cover the cost of building the housing top structure.

The Finance Linked Individual Subsidy can also be used to buy the land and build houses but in this situation the subsidy amount depends on the household income and ranges from just over R121,000 per household (if the household earns just above R3,500 per month), to around R28,000 per household (if the household earns just below R22,000 per month).

For those people who don’t qualify for top structure subsidies (because, for example, they have already owned property, or they earn more than R3,500/ month), they have to use their own funds and resources to buy the land and build their own houses.

The two main programmes for funding upgrading of informal settlements are using funds from

  • The human settlement development grant (HSDG) that local municipalities can access.
  • The urban settlement development grant (USDG) that metropolitan municipalities can access.

This Human Settlements Development Grant (HSDG) is given by the national Department of Human Settlements to provincial Departments of Human Settlements. Provincial departments will then decide how much of this HSDG grant will be spread between projects from the Integrate Residential Development Programme, Rural Housing Programme, the Enhanced Peoples’ Housing Process, Social Housing and other housing subsidy programmes, including the Upgrading of Informal Settlements Programme (UISP).  For now Provinces are required to ring fence a percentage of these HSDG funds for the UISP.

A local municipality then submits a motivation for an upgrading of informal settlement programme grant. These projects must be part of the projects that have been categorised by the municipality and it is clear if the settlement is an A, B1, B2 or C settlement.  For those projects that are approved by province, the municipality receives funding in tranches as per the phases outlined in the motivation. Category B1 and B2 settlements can then start to put in basic temporary or emergency services.

After a certain date, yet to be confirmed, national government will establish a special dedicated programme called the Upgrading of Informal Settlements Partnership Grant (UISP Grant) – or something similar – that municipalities will have access to from the provincial department of human settlements. The upgrading of informal settlements programme will no longer be a sub component of the HSDG but will have its own dedicated programme for which provinces and municipalities will have to account.

The Urban Settlement Development Grant (USDG) is given to metropolitan municipalities directly from national treasury.  It is put into a ‘big pot’ by metros that the metros then have to use to cover a whole range of activities ranging from installing and maintaining the bulk water and sanitation infrastructure, the building and maintenance of all municipal roads, and the provision of basic water and sanitation services in informal settlements. Over the last few years the national electrification programme funds for metros were also added to this USDG pool of funding.  This includes funds to electrify informal settlements.  In summary, almost all departments of the metro make claims on this pool of funding to carry out their work.

The human settlements department of the metro municipality, working in partnership with the various line departments like town planning, roads and storm water, water and sanitation, refuse removal and others has to submit an upgrading of informal settlements motivation to the metro managers office that is responsible for allocating USDG funding between departments in accordance with its Integrated Development Plan (IDP) and Built Environment Performance Plans (BEPP).

When considering which upgrading projects to fund from the USDG, the metro managers office must also consider if the informal settlement has been categorised as part of a metro wide informal settlement categorisation programme and if it is in line to receive funding at this time compared to other informal settlements that are earmarked to receive some funding at a later date.

If USDG funding is granted then the relevant department, such as the water and sanitation department, will be responsible for arranging for the instillation of the communal water and sanitation services as part of the incremental and phased approach to upgrading.

Line departments can no longer just decide on their own, without reference to any metro-wide upgrading programme, where they will provide basic services like communal water toilets and electricity.

After a certain date, yet to be confirmed, national government will establish a special dedicated programme called the Upgrading of Informal Settlements Partnership Grant (UISPG) – or something similar – that metros will have to access to if they want to upgrade informal settlements.  The provision of basic services and upgrading of informal settlements will no longer be just one part of a much broader USDG programme but will be a dedicated UISPG that metros will have to account for separately.  In this way metros will no longer be able to use funding that is supposed to be for upgrading of informal settlements for some other purpose such as upgrading major access roads within the metro.

The upgrading of informal settlements is not just about land, engineering services, tenure and houses.

Other elements associated with the upgrading of informal settlements includes:

  • The provision of bulk water, sanitation, roads and electricity services
  • The planning and construction of public facilities like community halls, schools, clinics, police stations etc
  • On-going maintenance and cleaning costs associated with the basic temporary and emergency services and facilities provided.
  • The provision of small business development and support facilities and services as well as the operation and maintenance of these.
  • The provision of a range of skills training courses ranging for adult literacy classes, to small business development, building construction skills, and many others.
  • Social facilitation for community participation throughout the whole upgrading process.

It is up to the participants involved to identify what other services, facilities and elements could be provided as part of the upgrading process and seek funding for these.

The Community Work Programme is very applicable within the upgrading of informal settlements process.

The CWP is a national programme overseen by the Department of cooperative governance and traditional affairs. NGO site agents are appointed to manage sites (which are usually municipal areas). The site agents, working with the municipality and the community establish a committee to guide the implementation of the CWP. This committee identifies various work tasks that will be undertaken on a site. Once one set of work activities are completed the committee can identify more work activities.

A group of local community members are employed for two days a week to undertake agreed work while another group of community members are employed for another two days a week. CWP participants can also be trained in life skills, adult literacy, business start up skills and other skills so that they are more likely to be employed in the more formal economy.

The following provide examples of the activities that can be undertaken:

Physical construction and maintenance

  • Building communal ablution blocks
  • Installing communal standpipes
  • Construction of basic storm water channels
  • Maintenance of communal ablutions and water standpipes

Social:

  • Provision of home based care to the aged
  • Establishment and management of community gardens

Environmental :

  • Cleaning rubbish
  • Removing alien vegetation

Land tenure is about the relationship people have with the land where they live. When people have insecure land tenure this means that they face the threat of removal and eviction from the land.  When they have stronger land tenure security it means that they are more able to defend against being unfairly evicted or removed from the land they occupy.

In the same way that water, toilets, roads and other engineering services can be upgraded over time from one were people start with basic services, move through various intermediate levels of services through to having a full level of services; the upgrading of informal settlement process also provides an opportunity for tenure to be improved, step by step, from one were people have weaker land tenure security to one where they have much stronger land tenure security.  Private land ownership (with title deeds) is just one way to arrange the relationship people have with the land in a way where people have stronger land tenure security.

The following are examples of how land tenure can be secured as part of an upgrading process.  It is up to the municipality and community to come up with further innovative ways to manage land tenure within the upgrading of informal settlements process.

  • Communities can try to increase their tenure security is by establishing an informal settlement residents committee that takes responsibility for creating and maintaining a list of all people living in the informal settlement. In this way, if someone wants to remove them they at least know who is living in the area and can organise to resist.
  • If the municipality recognises this community list, this will significantly increase the land tenure security of the people living in the area. The ward councillor may for example, refer to the list when signing an affidavit that the person actually lives on the piece of land. These affidavits are often used to open an account at a furniture or other shop.
  • Tenure security can be increased even further if the municipality develops an interim land tenure policy for informal settlements which state that the municipality, working with the community, will maintain a list with the names of people living in a shack, linked to a GPS coordinate of the front door of the shack. This policy should also outline the procedures that a community member needs to follow to change the names on this list of the people living in a particular shack.  The municipality could also give the occupants an official stamped certificate verifying that the person’s name is recorded on the municipal list.
  • An interesting option of recognising land tenure is for the municipality to take a council resolution whereby they agree to use the geo-referenced location of pre-payment electricity meters, if these are provided to informal settlements, as the mechanism through which the municipality recognises that people are staying in the area. In this way, people living in informal settlements can start to buy and sell the rights to use pre-payment meters in a similar way they would use title deeds to buy and sell the rights to stay in a particular house.
  • Even if people don’t get electricity from the municipality, the municipality can still give people electricity accounts and charge them R0 per month, just to show that the municipality recognises that the person is staying in a particular shack.
  • Over time, as part of a step by step process of providing increased tenure security, the municipality can mark out plots on the land and then enter into a lease agreement with the occupant of the land whereby the occupant agrees to stay on the land and follow municipality rules such as not making a noise after certain hours and not transferring occupation rights to the land without informing the municipality.
  • In future the municipality can then transfer ownership of these plots to the person living on the land and give them title deeds to prove that they own the land. It needs to be remembered that if government housing subsidies are used to pay for the land and pay for the legal costs of transferring the land then the people living on the land need to qualify for a housing subsidy.  If they don’t the person living on the land will have to use their own money to buy the land and arrange for the legal costs associated with getting title deeds.

Interventions by government to address upgrading of informal settlements must not just focus on individual informal settlements at the project scale. They also need to focus on interventions at the scale of whole municipality, metro and/or district. These broader municipal wide interventions are called a programmatic approach to upgrading.

The following are a few examples:

  • Conduct a study to categorise all informal settlements into category A, B1, B2, and C categories
  • The development of a municipal policy on local and administrative tenure recognition for people living in informal settlements.
  • The development of a special land use management or zoning category that allows for people to build a temporary shelter
  • The development of a special municipal programme to respond to fires within informal settlements. This could include training of informal settlement residents on how to respond to fires and the acquisition and use of special fire equipment that can access dense informal settlements.
  • The development of a new technology to provide pedestrian paths and storm water within informal settlements across the whole municipality.
  • The development of modified norms and standards that apply to the self-help construction of temporary and permanent housing.
  • The planning and establishment of a housing support programme to be linked to a city wide upgrading of informal settlements programme. This could include for example:
    • developing information material on how to build a temporary house
    • the maintenance of a data base of builders and material suppliers that self help builders can utilise to help the build their own houses
    • the provision of training on how to build temporary houses
    • the facilitation of a bulk material buying programme where government supports the community to negotiate with material suppliers to access cheaper prices if by buying in bulk
    • the provision of subsidised office space for community based initiatives like local stokvels where community members save money towards the purchase of building materials.
  • The negotiation with those responsible for the Community works Programme in the municipality to make use of the CWP within informal settlements across the municipality.

As you can see there is a wide range of programmatic interventions that government can do to support the upgrading of informal settlements. It is up to the parties involved to be creative in identifying what will be appropriate in each situation.

Spatial transformation is about changing the spatial patterns of our settlements from what they are now to an improved pattern.

For example, apartheid planning resulted in racial groups being segregated and separated from each other as well as different land uses (jobs, work, shopping) being separated. Now we want to transform our cities, towns, settlements and regions to be one where racial and income groups and uses of the land are integrated and mixed.  In other words we want to transform our settlements from ‘separate development’ to ‘integrated development’.

Many informal settlements, by being located on small infill pieces of land within or close to higher income areas, helps contribute towards integration.

Another example of spatial transformation is that most of our settlements are built at a much lower density than many examples of settlements around the world. This means that people have to travel further and spend more money and time on travel.  It also means that more valuable agricultural and conservation land is taken up by roads, houses and other urban land uses.

Many informal settlements are located in infill areas close to existing urban opportunities. This contributes to densifying our settlements.

Yes, the upgrading of informal settlements programme in the housing code says that the programme “will also apply in cases where communities are to be relocated for a variety of reasons. … The provisions of this programme are equally applicable to both the upgraded settlement and the relocation site.”   (s2.2 bullet two)

This means, for example, that government can put communal toilets and water standpipes on an empty new piece of land and mark out plots for people to then move onto in order for them to start building their own temporary houses. In this way both the people who stay in an informal settlement and the people who move to a new piece of land start from the same level with basic services and basic tenure.

It is not very clear on whether the Upgrading of informal settlements programme can be used to accommodate people on an empty piece of land if they are not already living in an informal settlement. However, it can be argued that in an attempt to ‘get ahead of the problem of informal settlements’ and make land available for people to occupy in a managed and organised way, the UISP subsidy can be used by government to at least provide temporary basic services and administrative tenure recognition to people who move onto this land.

Some call this managed land settlement or MLS.  You can find more information on MLS at http://afesis.org.za/managed-land-settlement/

When municipalities or metros upgrade an informal settlement they upgrade the whole informal settlement. As explained elsewhere in this document, all people living in an informal settlement benefit from the upgrading. No one is excluded from the emergency or temporary services and no one is excluded from receiving some form of basic tenure recognition (that does not include title deeds).

The same argument applies to people from category B2 and C (informal settlements that have to be relocated to a new piece of land).  For example, if the land is on a flood plain, all the people living in this area need to be removed, including those who don’t qualify for a housing top structure subsidy.

This means that there is no need to have a housing subsidy allocation policy for the upgrading of informal settlements on the land people already occupy (category A and B2) and the land where people from B2 and C informal settlements are relocated (as long as they don’t get title deeds and top structures).

It is only when the municipality applies for funds for phase 4 of the upgrading programme to build top structures and transfer title deeds does one have to have a clear housing subsidy allocation policy to make sure that only people who qualify for a housing subsidy receive the subsidy. It would also be best to make sure that people who have been waiting a long time to get a house are the ones that get top structure funding first.

The municipality or metro will however need to have an allocation policy for situations where the Managed Land Settlement approach is used and people are allocated new land from some form of ‘waiting list’.  These people could be, for example, presently living in backyard shacks, overcrowded formal houses, in neighbouring communal land areas and commuting to work every day or in any other intolerable conditions. The allocation policy in these instances will need to ensure that opportunities to gain access to at least a tenure secure plot (without title deeds) with access to (at least) interim basic services  is a transparent and fair policy that accommodates those with the greatest need and who have been waiting the longest first.

National government requires municipalities to include social compacts into the process of upgrading of informal settlements.  A social compact is an agreement signed between identified stakeholders involved in the upgrading of informal settlements and explains each of their roles.

A social compact agreement includes three things:

  • A vision for what the signatories to the social compact would like to see in future
  • Commitments from each of the signatories as to what they will be doing to help work towards the vision; and
  • A management system that explains how the parties will check that the commitments they have agreed to are being implemented

The vision could include, for example, a vision of a settlement that has been upgraded where it has been upgraded on a new piece of land; and where this settlement has been created through an incremental process, where the community plays a key role in the upgrading process in participating in decision making process, and all stakeholders partner with each other to achieve the vision.

Each party will then make commitments which outline the roles they will play in the upgrading process.  For example:

  • Community – informal settlement committee: Participate in the upgrading process, support the municipality when it undertakes upgrading projects, report back on any challenges that are noted during the upgrading process, etc.
  • Municipality – human settlements department: Coordinate the provision of basic services and the whole upgrading of informal settlements process
  • Municipality – municipal mangers office: Coordinate the municipal budgeting process to ensure that budgets for upgrading are made available for each department.
  • Municipality – water and sanitation department: Plan for and implement the provision of basic emergency or interim water and sanitation in the informal settlement.
  • Municipality – roads and storm water department: Plan for and install basic storm water channels, paths and roads in the informal settlement
  • Municipality – electricity department: Plan for and install domestic electricity and public lighting in the informal settlement.
  • Municipality – Local Economic Development department: Introduce and implement small business development support projects for people living in the informal settlement.
  • Community work programme site managers: Introduce the community work programme to the informal settlement residents and facilitate a process of using the CW to implement identified activities.
  • Provincial department of human settlements: Support the municipality to undertake the upgrading process and call on other provincial and national departments to get involved as required.
  • Department of sports, arts and culture: Identify needs within the community and seek funding to build interim recreation facilities and spaces and offer training on identified topics.
  • Local businesses: Provide discounts on identified products and services to people from the informal settlement.
  • Local churches: Provide food and other support to destitutepeople living in the informal settlement.
  • Local NGOs: Provide capacity building and other support to help the community hep itself to improve their own living environments.

It is up to the stakeholders already involved to identify and draw in more stakeholders who can make further commitments to work towards the upgrading of informal settlements.

The management systems that are put in place will depend on the scale at which various commitments are made:

  • A city wide upgrading structure could be created that is tasked with overseeing all upgrading activities across the whole municipality. Such a structure would probably be needed to oversee any commitments that are made in relation to developing and implementing a city wide programmatic approach to upgrading.
  • Neighbourhood or cluster based structures could be established where people from informal settlements in a particular area come together and engage with the municipality to manage and monitor that the commitments are being implemented.

Project steering committees may need to be established for specific projects and commitments such as the provision of small business training in a particular informal settlement, or the construction of more communal toilets.

National government also requires municipalities to include the development and implementation of livelihood plans in the upgrading of informal settlements process.

Government recognises that upgrading of informal settlements is not just about providing services, plots and houses, but it is also about improving peoples social and economic circumstances.

Livelihood is what a person does to survive and hopefully thrive in a particular place and situation. A livelihood plan shows what the municipality, in partnership with the community and other stakeholders, will do to improve people’s social and economic circumstances .  In other words, what will be done to create jobs, reduce poverty, reduce crime, improve education, improve health, support people living with HIV/aids and other diseases, provide food, address gender based violence, protect the environment and many other things.

When developing a livelihood plan the municipality needs to look at the various vulnerabilities and shocks that people living in informal settlements face.

Shocks are sudden events that can impact a person negatively

  • Human shocks – illness, accident
  • Natural shocks – floods, fires
  • Economic shocks – losing a job, having prices of food and transport suddenly go up, etc
  • Social shocks –conflict and violence including gang wars and gender based violence

Vulnerability is understood as the probability of being exposed to risks or shocks.  Vulnarability includes

  • Not having enough money
  • Not having sufficient food and water
  • Having inadequate sanitation, refuse removal and electricity
  • Living far from facilities, jobs and support programmes offered by government and churches etc
  • Struggling to meet ones basic needs
  • Living with a disability

This shows that people face multiple problems on a daily basis, not just problems associated with lack of service and housing. The combination of these problems make it difficult for people to feel that they can achieve a better life for themselves, their families and their neighbours.

When developing livelihood plans the municipality and stakeholders involved also needs to look at what assets and resources people can draw and build on in their attempts to improve their lives.

These assets include material or physical assets as well as non material or social assets. There are at least five assets (or what some people call capitals) that one needs to explore when developing a livelihood plan:

  • Natural assets – land, trees, water, etc
  • Physical assets – water, sanitation, roads, taxis, etc
  • Human assets – skills, knowledge, ability to work, etc
  • Social assets – groups of people, networks, relationships, etc
  • Financial assets – savings, loans, remittances, etc

Informal settlements can improve access to livelihoods by strengthening  assets:

  • Human assets – Health improvements and reduced health risks (e.g. water and sanitation provision). Increased skills and knowledge through participatory processes
  • Social assets – Sense of permanent community through secure tenure; improved access to support services; network building through community participation and empowerment
  • Natural assets – Improved natural environment through the provision of water and sanitation services, refuse removal services, storm-water drains and electrical energy
  • Physical assets – Provision of basic services like water, sanitation, drainage, access to public transport, electricity and area lighting
  • Financial assets – Secure tenure as a focus for investment; a fixed address improves access to banking facilities; improved employment opportunities through provision of transport, local economic amenities, and participatory processes

A person or community with a sustainable livelihood is one that is:

  • able to cope with and recover from shocks
  • not very dependent on external people to do things for them
  • not primarily focused on the problems and things that they don’t have
  • aware of and is building on the local assets that they already have
  • focused on enhancing or at least maintaining their capabilities
  • clear of the vision towards which they are striving
  • working with others in a structured way to achieve their vision.
  • learning from their own and others’ experiences and continually striving to do better by sharing their own experiences and helping others in similar situations and following similar paths

Achieving sustainable livelihoods is not easy and the following points need to be kept in mind:

  • One needs to be aware that there is always competition for limited resources
  • Various interventions to upgrade informal settlements and improve livelihoods favour some and not others
  • Safety nets may be needed for those that are marginalised and most vulnerable

Information drawn for this section drawn from:

The following provides examples for how the upgrading process works in different scenarios

  1. Complete upgrading process for B1 – low density
  2. Complete upgrading process for B1 – high density (shift)
  3. Complete upgrading process for B1 – high density (TRA – two moves))
  4. Complete upgrade process for B2 – later relocation to permanent services
  5. Complete upgrade process for B2 – later relocation to basic emergency services
  6. Development process for C – immediate relocation to permanent services.
  7. Development process for C – immediate relocation to interim services

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at low density
  • Basic planning happens

Phase 2

  • Basic services brought in
  • Basic tenure recognised

Phase 3

  • Detailed planning happens
  • Plots and/or erfs created
  • Permanent engineering services installed on boundaries

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided; for the rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their houses

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at high density
  • Basic planning happens (frame identified)

Phase 2

  • Shacks shifted or moved to create space for frame
  • Basic services installed (water, toilets, paths, roads, electricity, installed in frame)
  • Basic tenure recognised

Phase 3

  • Detailed planning happens
  • Plots and/or erfs identified within blocks created by frame
  • Plots/ erfs surveyed and pegged
  • Permanent engineering services installed on boundaries
  • Improved basic tenure provided (e.g. link GPS coordinates of plot – to occupation list maintained by municipality according to municipal basic tenure policy – to occupation certificate)

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided; for the rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their houses

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at high density
  • Basic planning happens (frame identified)

Phase 2

  • Shacks shifted or moved to create space for frame
  • Basic services installed (water, toilets, paths, roads, electricity, installed in frame)
  • Basic tenure recognised

Phase 3

  • Detailed planning happens
  • TRA land identified, planned and serviced
  • People move to temporary houses in TRA
  • Plots/ erfs surveyed and pegged on original land
  • Permanent engineering services installed on boundaries on original land
  • Improved basic tenure provided (e.g. link GPS coordinates of plot – to occupation list maintained by municipality according to municipal basic tenure policy – to occupation certificate)
  • People move back to planned and serviced original land and rebuild their own houses

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided; for the rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their houses

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at high (or low) density
  • Basic planning happens (frame identified if high density)

Phase 2

  • If high density, shacks shifted or moved to create space for frame
  • Basic services installed (water, toilets, paths, roads, electricity, installed in frame)
  • Basic tenure recognised

Phase 3

  • Land for relocation identified
  • Detailed planning happens for relocated land
  • Plots/ erfs surveyed and pegged on relocated land
  • Permanent engineering services installed on plot/erf boundaries on relocated land
  • At least an improved basic tenure provided (e.g. link GPS coordinates of plot – to occupation list maintained by municipality according to municipal basic tenure policy – to occupation certificate)
  • People move from original informal settlement to new planned area and rebuild their houses

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided on the new land; for rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their houses

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at high (or low) density
  • Basic planning happens (frame identified if high density)

Phase 2

  • If high density shacks shifted or moved to create space for frame
  • Basic services installed (water, toilets, paths, roads, electricity, installed in frame)
  • Basic tenure recognised

Phase 3

  • Land for relocation identified
  • Detailed planning happens for relocated land
  • Plots/ erfs surveyed and pegged on relocated land
  • Interim basic services (communal water and toilets, roads and storm water, paths, electricity, etc) installed on new land
  • At least an improved basic tenure provided (e.g. link GPS coordinates of plot – to occupation list maintained by municipality according to municipal basic tenure policy – to occupation certificate)
  • People move to new land and start to rebuild their houses
  • Permanent engineering services installed to plot/erf boundaries

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided on the new land; for the rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their house.

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at high (or low) density
  • New land already identified and planning for this new land already complete and all approvals in place (e.g. environmental authorisation, re-zoning, etc.)

Phase 2

  • No activities for this stage in this scenario.

Phase 3

  • Plots/ erfs surveyed and pegged on relocated land
  • Permanent engineering services installed to plot/erf boundaries
  • At least an improved basic tenure provided (e.g. link GPS coordinates of plot – to occupation list maintained by municipality according to municipal basic tenure policy – to occupation certificate)
  • People move to new land and start to rebuild their houses

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided on the new land; for the rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their house.

Phase 1

  • People live in shacks at high (or low) density
  • New land already identified and planning for this new land already complete and all approvals in place (e.g. environmental authorisation, re-zoning, etc.)

Phase 2

  • No activities for this stage in this scenario.

Phase 3

  • Plots/ erfs surveyed and pegged on relocated land
  • Interim basic services (communal water and toilets, roads and storm water, paths, electricity, etc) installed on new land
  • At least an improved basic tenure provided (e.g. link GPS coordinates of plot – to occupation list maintained by municipality according to municipal basic tenure policy – to occupation certificate)
  • People move to new land and start to rebuild their houses
  • Permanent engineering services installed on plot/erf boundaries

Phase 4

  • For some who qualify, RDP houses with toilets built and title deeds provided on the new land; for the rest they use their own money to buy erfs, install individual services and build a house.
  • All people use their own money to continually improve their house.

There are only a few websites that collect information on the upgrading of informal settlements in South Africa.  These include:

Please contact info@afesis.org.za if you know of any other places where you can find information on the upgrading of informal settlements.

IMIBUZO EBUZWA RHOQO KWANEEMPENDULO

Le yindlela yethu yokuphendula imibuzo esiye siyibuzwe rhoqo xa sithetha ngophuhliso lwezindlu ekuhlalwa kuzo luluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi ekuthiwa yi upgrading of informal settlements eMzantsi Afrika. Injongo yethu kukuphuhlisa ukuba kutheni le knqubo ibalulekile nokuba yenziwa njani.

Iindawo ezihlala abantu ezikumgangatho ophantsi ekugxininiswe kuzo kolu hlelo zezo apho abantu bengenazindlu zisengangathweni uphazelu oninzi lwazo lwakhiwe ngezinto ezingakhawuleza zidilike ezifana nodaka, imacangci, ibhokisi zamaphepha neplastiki, njalo njalo. Inkangeleko yazo ezi zindlu ingathi zezokuxhwarha nje umzuzwana kuba zakhiwe ngezinto ezingenakuze zibambelele ithuba elide. Maxa wambi ezi zindlu zakhiwa kumhlaba apha abantu bengakhange bafumane mvume yabasenthethweni yokwakha khona, nto leyo enyanzelisa ukuba babekuxhwarha belindele ukususwa nanini. Inkoliso yezi ndawo azibinazo inkonzo zophuhliso ezifana namanzi, izindlu zangasese, ukuthuthwa kwenkunkuma, njalo njalo.

Xa abantu bengenazo iinzame neendlela zokuthenga umhlaba okanye izindlu, abe norhulumente engenayo indlela yokubabonelela ngezindlu. Kube kufuneka besondele kumathuba engqesho nakumathuba endlela zokuziphilisa ezizemthethweni kuye kunyanzeleke ukuba abantu bazame unako-nako benze indlela yokufihla intloko. Amaxesha amaninzi ke abantu abakule meko baye bakhangele umhlaba ofumanekayo baxhwarhe kuwo, amaxesha amaninzi bengakhange babe kanti bafumena mvume kubanini mhlaba lowo.

Uphuhliso lwe upgrading of informal settlements aluquki ukuphuhliswa kwezindlu ezingekho mgangathweni ezakhiwe emveni kwendlu yodidi kumzi nomzi. Into ekuthiwa ngamagumbi asecaleni ngabanini mzi (ibackyard shacks).

Kwakhona, xa urhulumente ekhupha abantu kwizindlu ezingekho mgangatwheni ebasa kwezo abakhele zona kwinkqubo iRDP, nolo asilulo uphuhliso kule nkqubo esithetha ngayo. Yone leyo inknqubo kukhwakhiwa nje kwezindlu zesibonelelo ngurhulumente.

Uphuhliso lwe upgrading of informal settlements aluquki ukuphuhliswa kwezindlu ezingekho mgangathweni ezakhiwe emveni kwendlu yodidi kumzi nomzi. Into ekuthiwa ngamagumbi asecaleni ngabanini mzi (ibackyard shacks).

Kwakhona, xa urhulumente ekhupha abantu kwizindlu ezingekho mgangatwheni ebasa kwezo abakhele zona kwinkqubo iRDP, nolo asilulo uphuhliso kule nkqubo esithetha ngayo. Yone leyo inknqubo kukhwakhiwa nje kwezindlu zesibonelelo ngurhulumente.

Umbutho wembumba yezizwe ngeziwe iUnited Nations uzicacisa indawo ezingekho mgangathweni ezihlala abantu ngolu hlobo:

  • Abahlali abo abanasiqinisekiso sisemthethweni sokuhlala kwindawo abame kuyo, bahleli bexhwarhile behleli ngempundu enye, kuquka nabo bahleli ngomgunyathi kumhlaba abangacelanga mvume ukuba bame kuwo, nabo bahleli emagumbini asemva kwezindlu ezinkulu ezikumgangatho ophezulwana behlawuliswa nerhafu;
  • Ezi ndawo zibonakala ngokuswela iinkonzo ezininzi zoluntu ukuba umgangatho uphantsi, amaxesha amaninzi ziye zibe mgama nasembindini wedolophu apho inkonzo zingcono khona; kwaye
  • Izindlu ezakhiwayo kwezi ndawo uninzi lwazo zikumgangatho ophantsi, angangqamananga nemigomo kaMasipala yezakhiwo, umaxa amaninzi zimi nakwindawo ezingafanele kuhlala bantu ngokwemeko yazo.

Ukushwankathela le ngcaciso ke masithi:

  • Abantu bahlala ngokungekho mthethweni bengenamvume yakuhlala
  • Abanamanzi, zindlu zangasese okanye ezinye inkonzo zophuhliso ezibalulekileyo kwintlala-kahle yoluntu
  • Izindlu abahlala kuzo zikumgangatho ophansti obeka nobomi babo engciphekweni

Khangela ukuba ngaba ayikho nae nye nokuba zezimbalwa kwezi mpawu zingezantsi, nto leyo ekubonisayo ukuba indawo ohlala kuyo yesemgangathweni na okanye yenye yezi ndawo ezingekho mgangathweni ekuthethwa ngazo apha:

  • Umhlaba ayingowakho – inkonzo zophuhliso azikho kakuhle – indlu ikumgangatho ophantsi
  • Umhlaba ayingowakho – inkonzo zophuhliso azikho kakuhle – indlu ikumgangatho ophezulu
  • Umhlaba ayingowakho – zikhona iinkonzo zophuhliso ziyonelisa – indlu ikumgangatho ophantsi
  • Umhlaba ngowakho ngokusemthethweni – inkonzo zophuhliso azikho kakuhle – indlu ikumgangatho phantsi
  • Umhlaba ayingowakho – iinkonzo zophuhliso ziyancomeka – indlu ikumgangatho ophezulu
  • Umhaba ngowakho ngokusemthetwheni – akukho zinkonzo zophuhliso – indlu ikumgangatho ophezulu
  • Umhaba ngowakho ngokusemthetwheni – iinkonzo zophuhliso ziyancomeka – indlu ikumgangatho ophantsi

Indawo ehlala abantu iba kumgangatho owamkelekileyo nolungileyo xa

  • Abantu bemi emhlabeni ngokusemthethweni – benenkonzo zophuhliso ezincomekayo – behlala kwizindlu ezikumgangatho ofanelekileyo

Zimbini izizathu eziphambili zokwakhiwa kwenkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo abantu abahlala kuzo ezikumgangatho ophantsi:

  1. Urhulumente akanayo imali eyaneleyo yokuba angakhela bonke abantu abadinga indawo yokuhlala nabahlala kwindawo ezikumgangatho ophantsi izindlu ngokohlelo lwakhe lwenkxaso-ngezindlu oluyi RDP. Uqikelelo olwenziwe yinkqubo karhulumente ye National Upgrading Support Programme (NUSP) lubonisa ukuba kungathabatha iminyaka engu 32 ukuba urhulumente akhele bonke abantu abebedinga izindlu zokuhlala esisemgangathweni ngomnyaka ka 2018 esebenzisa imali anayo yohlelo lokwakhiwa kwezindlu iRDP. Kolu phando ababalwanga abantu abazakube bedinga izindlu kwiminyaka eyandulela lowo ka 2018 nani elo eliye likhula nalo.
  2. Inkundla enkulu yomgaqo siseko icacisile kwizigwebo ezisiwileyo ezifana neso setyala elinomama uGrootboom sika 2000 kwanesetyala elifana nele Joe Slovo sango 2010, ukuba urhulumente unyanzelekile ukuba enze inzame zokuqinisekisa ukuba wonke ubani unako ukufikelela kwinkonzo zophuhliso ezifana namanzi nozindlu zangasese, kwanoikuqinisekisa ukuba wenza inzame ezibonakalayo zokuohucula intlalo yoluntu khona ukuze wonke ubani akwazi ukuhlala kwindawo ezisemgangatweni ofanelekileyo.

Mininzi kakhulu imigomo nemiqathango ewiswa ngumgaqqo-siseko welizwe malunga nendlela yokuhlala yoluntu nenxaxheba urhulumente ekufuneka eyithathile.

SECTION 9 (1) uthi bonke abantu bayalingana phambi komthetho kwaye kume eukuba umthetho ubakhusele ngokulinganayo. (2) Equality – amalungelo abantu abanawo emthethweni ayalingana.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: Akukwazeki ukuba kubekho abantu abafumana inkxaso karhulumente yenkonzo zezindlu zangasese babe abanye abantu bengenazo ezinkonzo kwaphela, kunyanzeleka ukuba babalekele emathafeni.

SECTION 10 uthi wonke ubani unelungelo lokuhlonitshwa, kwaye eli Lungelo kumele lihlonitshwe, likhuselwe.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: Akulunganga kwaphela ukuba kubekho abantu abangabonelelwayo ngurhulumente bade banyanzeleke ukuba bazincede emathafeni nasemahlathini

SECTION 24 uthi wonke ubani unelungelo lokuphila kwindawo ekhuselekileyo, engabeki bomi bakhe engciphekweni, kwaye urhulumente kumele ache imithetho enze nezinye iinzame zokuqinisekisa ukuba iindawo abantu abahlala kuzo zikhuselekile umoya awungciliseki kwinzame azenzayo zophuhliso ngohlobo olungee lwenzakalise impilo yoluntu.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: Abantu abakwazi ukuhlala kwimeko apho impilo yabo isengciphekweni betsiba phezu kwelindlw indawo yonke ngenxa yokungabi nankozo zophuhliso. Lo nto ingade ichaphazele umoya abawuphefumlayo, amanzi abawaselayo kwanendawo leyo abahlala kuyo.

SECTION 25 (5) uthi urhulumente makakhe imithetho enze inzame zokuqinisekisa ukubakwimali anayo, uvula amathuba okuba abantu abangenawo umhlaba bakwazi ukuwufumana. SUB-SECTION (6) uqhubekeka yena esithi, umntu okanye abemmi abaluneglo labo kumhlaba othile lahluthwa ngexesha lengcinezelo banelungelo, elingangelo bakulinikwa ngokomthetho omawakhiwe yiPaliamente, kumhlaba abakuwunikwa ngokusemthetweni oyimbuyekezo okanye kwezinye indlela zembuyekezo amazichazwe ngurhulumente.  SUB SECTION (9) ugunyazisa iParliament eukuba mayakhe lo mthetho wenbuyekezo mhlaba enchazwe ngentla kuSUB-SECTION (6).

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: urhulumente kumele enze inkqubo efana nale yokuphuhliswa kwendawo ekuhlal kuzo uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi olubizwa informal settlements upgrading programme ukuncedisana nenzame zoluntu zokuma umhlaba ngokusemthethweni nokuphucula impilo zabo.

SECTION 26 (1) uthi wonke ubani unelungelo lokuhlala kwindawo ekumgangatho ofanelekileyo, ze uSUB-SECTION (2) yena athi urhulumente makakhe imithetho enze nezinye inzame zokuqinisekisa ukuba kwimali anayo, eli Lungelo liyafezekiswa.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: ngokuqonda ukuba urhulumente akanaluba nayo imali yokwakhela wonke u,mntu Odinga indawo yokuhlala ifanelekileyo indlu negxesha elinye umgaqo-siseko uyavuma ukuba urhulumente azame iindlela zokulifezekisa eli phupha kancinci kancinci kodwa ke kubanakale elubala ukuzama oko kwakhe. Olu phuhliso olulandel indlela uthile kancinci-kancinci de lufezeke emva kwethuba elithile elichazwe ngexa elingaphambili lazeka lolu isekelwe pohezu kwalo lenkqubo yophuhliso ye upgrading of informal settlements oluqala lujongane nokuziswa kwenkonzo zophuhliso eziphambili kuqala ezifana namanzi nezindlu zangasese, ze ethubeni, kwakhiwe nezindlu ezisemgangathweni.

SECTION 26 (3) akukho namnye umntu omakagxothwe endlwini ahlala kuyo, okanye idilizwe ngaphandle kwemvume yenkundla yamatyala nayo emayinike lo mvume emveni kokuba iphonononge yaqwalasela imeko zonke ezeveliswa ngamacala onke. Ide ithi akukho namnye umthetho amawakhiwe ngurhulumente omawuvumele ukususwa kwabantu emhlabeni nanjani.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: urhulumente uyanyanzeleke ukuba alandele umthetho ingakumbi lowo ufumaneka kwi [Prevention of Illegal Eviction from and unlawful occupation of Land Act, no. 19 of 1998] xa efuna ukususa abantu kwindawo abahlala kuyo ngakumbi abo bahlala kwindawo ezikwizinga elingekho mgangathweni.

SECTION 27 (1) (B) uthi wonke ubani unelungelo lokufumana amanzi awoneleyo, aze yena u SUB-SECTION (2) athi urhulumente makakhe imithetho enze nenzame zokuqinisekisa ukuba abantu bayalixhamla eli lungelo.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: urhulumente kufuneke esebenzise zonke iinzame nemali anazo ukufezekisa eli phupha, kancinci kancinci, ephucula impilo yabantu.

Eyona ndawana ingafane iqatshelwe kakhulu kumgaqo-siseko nemalunga nendawo zokuhlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi ngu SECTION 28 (1) (C)  othi bonke abantwana banelungelo lokuhlala kwindawo efanelekileyo. Le ndawo ke isebenzisa igama elithi ‘shelter – indawo yokufihla intloko’ hayi ‘house – indlu’.  Naxa kunjalo, le ndawana iyagunyazisa yona ukuba abantwana babonelelwe ngendawo yokuhlala ngurhulumente.

Masiyizise ke lento kulo mxholo wendawo ezihlala uluntu ezingekho mgangathweni sense umzekelo: urhulumente kufuneka eqinisekisile ukuba indawo zokufihla intloko ezifanelekileyo ziyafunyanwa ngabantu abanabantwana njengoko zililungelo Labantwana elikumgaqo-siseko welizwe (abantwana ke ingabo baneminyaka engaphantsi kuma 18).

Xa kusakhiwa izindlu zeRDP ngurhulumente, abantu kufuneka babe kanti bafezekise mabakala athile ukuze babe nokufumana indlu. Unzekelo, kufuneka ibe ngabemi baseMzantsi Afrika, babe nesazisi esingqina oko, babe kanti umvezo wabo ungaphantsi kuma R3,500 ngenyanga, babe bengazanga baba nandlu ngaphambili ngakumbi efumaneka ngenkxaso karhulumente, njalo njalo.

Inkqubo yokupohuhliswa kwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi yohlukile ngokuba wonke ubani ohlala kwindawo leyo unelungelo nethuba elilinganayo lokuthabatha inkxaxheba kuhlelo olo kwaye ilungelo lakhe lokuhlala kumhlaba lowo likhuseleke ngokufanayo nelabanye abantu kulon ndawo akujongi bimmi namvuzo wakhe oko. Kodwa ke qaphela ukuba ngabantu abafikelelayo kule migomo karhulumente yenkxaso yezindlu abaqwalaselwayo xa urhulumente ehlela izicelo zezindlu lakufika ixesha lokwakhiwa kwezindlu kwinkqubo yokupohuhliswa kwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi. Icaciswa banzi ke le nkqubo apha ngezantsi.

Ukuze ubani achongelwe inkqubo yolwakhiwo lwezindlu luka rhulumente olwaziwa njenge RDP kufuneka abe kanti uyayizalisekisa le miqathango ilandelayo:

  • Abe ngummi waseMzantsi Afrika
  • Abe uneminyaka engaphezulu kuma21 uphilile engqindweni uyakwazi nokuzimela
  • Abe utshatile okanye uhlala nomlingane, okanye uhlala yedwa kodwa unabo abantu abaxhomekeke kuye njengabantwana (oku kudibanisa amajoni esedla umhlala phantsi angatshatanga okanye abantu abadala kakhulu aele besidla umhlala phantsi bengenabantwana)
  • Umvuzo wakhe ungaphantsi kuma R3,500 ngenyanga (umvuzo owenziwa ngabo bonke abantu ahlala nabo udityanisiwe)
  • Akazange wakhe wafumana nkxaso ilolo hlobo kurhulumente ngaphambili
  • Uyaqala ukuba nendlu ezakubhaliswa egameni lakhe
  • Abantu abakhubazekileyo abayifezekisayo le miqathango ingentla kufanele ukuba baqwalaselwe kuqala bakhelwe izindluy ezibafaneleyo nezikhawulelana nemeko yabo

Zine iimpawu ongayiqwalasela ngazo le inkqubo:

  • Zilandela indlela yophuhliso eyongezela kancinci-kancinci;
  • Zinikezela ngesiqinisekiso sobummi esisemthethweni;
  • Zivula amathuba okuba abantu bathabathe inxaxheba kuhlelo; kwaye
  • Zakhelwe phezu kwentsebenziswano yamahlu awohlukeneyo.

Indlela yophuhliso eyingezelela kancinci-kancinci (Incrementalism)

Le yindlela apho indawo iye iphuhliswe kancinci kancinci, kuqalwa ngale yabube ifezekisiwe kwenziwe leya, naleya. Ekuhambeni kwexesha izinto ezininzi zibe zenziwe, bezisenziwa kancinci kancinci. Emva kwexesha xa umntu ekhangela ngasemva uye abone umzila wophuhliso.

Isiqinisekiso sobimmi bomhlaba esisemthetweni (Tenure Security)

Isiqinisekiso sobummi bomhlaba ekuthethwa ngaso kule nkqubo silandela indlela yophuhliso eyongezelelwayo njengoko kuchaziwe ngentla. Isiqinisekiso sokuqala sesivela kuMasipala esibonisa ukuba uyabazi abammi kumhlaba lowo uphuhliso lwenzeka kuwo, nobungakanani bomhlaba abawumileyo uyawazi, ekwangqina nokuba beme kulo ndawo ngokusemthethweni nangemvume yakhe. Ethubeni, uMasipala uye ancedisane nabemi abo bafumane iziqinisekiso ezisisigxina ezibizwa iTitle Deeds.

Zintathu indlela zobummi bomhlaba ezikhankanywa yi National Upgrading Support Programme ezithungelanayo kusuka kwimo yokungakhuseleki ukuya kweyesiqinisekiso esikhuselekileyo:

  • Indlela abahlali abayisebenzisayo yokuvumelana ngabemi bendawo leyo. Ezi Ndlela azikho mthethweni azibhalwanga nandawo kodwa ke ziyindlela eyaziwayo neyamkelweyo ngabahlali balo ndawo abenza ngayo kuquka nokuqulunqwa koluhlu lwabahlali bendawo leyo.
  • Abasemthethweni abafana noMasipala bahlela uluhle lwabahlali bendawo , bebala nemizi leyo, maxa wambi bade babhala namanani omzi ngomzi icangweni.
  • Urhulumente usebenzisa imithetho yelizwe eyakhelwe oko ukuhlela abemi bendawo abakumeleyo ngokomthetho ukuba banikwe iziqinisekiso ezisemthethweni zesisigxina zobummi.

Umbuzo ongezantsi othi “ziziphi ezinye iindlela zobummi ezinokusetyenziswa xa kuphuhliswa iindawo zokuhlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi” ucacisa banzi ngokhuseleko lobummi.

Ukuthatha inxaxheba kwabantu bonke (Participation)

Le yindlela yokuqinisekisa ukuba abantu bathabatha inxaxheba kuphuhliso lwabo kuwo onke amabakala alandelwayo okuphuhlisa indawo abahlala kuyo. Abahlali bendawo leyo ngabo abanamaphupha ngendawo yabo ngoko banikwa ithuba lokuveza imibono namaphupha lawo ukuze uphuhliso olo lugnqamane nalo mibono kangangoko.

Intsebenziswano yamahlu ngamahlu (Partnerships)

Baninzi abantu abaye bathabathe ixaxheba kuphuhliso olulolu hlobo bephuma kumasebe-ngamasebe kaRhulumente, namacandelo awohlukileyo kuquka oosomashishini abakhulu,nabakhasayo, abahlali, njalo njalo. Intsebenziswano yalamahlu onke iye iqinisekise ukuba izakhono nolwazi abaza nalo kwakhelwa kulo khona ukuze uphuhliso lufezeke.

Inkqubo yecandelo lecandelo lezindlu iNUSP ifumene ezi njengezinye iimpawu onokuyibona ngazo inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo zoluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi olubizwa informal settlement upgrading:

  • Iyakhathala kakhulu ngabantu
  • Imamela ikwaqwalasele imfuno zabantu
  • Uphuhliso lujoliswe ekuphuculeni imo yempilo neyentlalo yoluntu
  • Yenziwa ngesantya esiphezulu kusetyenziswa imali ekhoyo ngendlela

Isebe lesizwe lokuhlaliswa kwabantu, ngokusebenzisa i-NUSP lichonge le mithetho mine ilandelayo ekhokela ukuphuculwa kwamatyotyombe:

  • Ukukhathalela abantu
  • Mamela kwaye uqonde iimfuno zabantu
  • Phucula amatyotyombe ngenjongo ezempilo, ukhuseleko nesidima
  • Thatha amanyathelo ngokukhawuleza usebenzisa izixhobo ezikhoyo

Inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo zoluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi olubizwa informal settlements ijongene nokuphumeza ezi njongo:

  • Ukuba abantu bahlale emhlabeni ngokusemagunyeni benesiqinisekiso esisemthethweni soko – oku kwenziwa ngokuba amalungelo abantu akhuselwe nobummi babantu bukhuseleke
  • Ukuohuhlisa imo yempilo neyokhuseleko lwabantu – indlela ezisetyenziswayo kuphuhliso zibe zezisemgangathweni ophakamileyo neziqinisekisa ukuba ethubeni nabanye abantu bayaxhamla kupohuhliso olo
  • Iyaphumeza isomeleza – ngokuqinisekisa ukuba iinkonzo zentlala-kahle ziyaqwalaselwa ukuncedisana nabemmi bahlalisane ngoxolo nangenzolo besakhana befuthelana abahlali bayomelela besomelezana besakha ubuhlobo

Amabahlale namabahambe

Into yokuqala ke ekufuneka uMasipala ayenze xa elungiselela ukuphuhlisa indawo zokuhlala ezikumgangatho ophantsi kukuqala aqwalasele zonke ezi ndawo, ekhangela ukuba indawo ezimi kuyo injani. Kukho indawo ezakhelwe kumhlaba ongafanelekanga, apho amanzi abaleka khona okanye apho iindonga zivuleka khona. Zininzi ke izizathu ezenza ukuba indawo ibe ayifanelekanga ukuba abantu bangahlala kuyo. uMasipala ke kufuneka eqale wenza olu hlolo eqwalasela ukuba ngabaphi abantu abame kwindawo ekuzakufuneka besusiwe kuzo, ingabaphi abantu abame apho kunokuphuhliswa khona bengakhange kufuneke basuswe. Olu phando lubaluleke kakhulu kuba kulo kuqulathe ubunzulu bendlela emaluhlelwe ngalo uphuhliso olo nemali engafuneka, nezivumelwano ekuzakufuneka kuvunyelwene kuzo.

Ixesha elinokuthathwa

Okwesibini kukuqwlaselwa kwexesha elinokuthatyathwa ukuphuhliswa kwendawo leyo, nokuba izakuhlala kulo nadwo emi kuyo, nokuba kumele isusiwe.

Xa ke udibanisa ezi ndidi uphela ufumana oku:

Amabahlale Namabahambe
Ngoku/mafuphi Category A Category C
Kwixa elizayo Category B1 Category B2
  • Uluhlu lokuqala (Category A): abantu bangahlala kumhlala abakuwo kwaye bangafumana iinkonzo zoluntu nesiqinisekiso sobummi ngokukhawulezileyo
  • Uluhlu uB1 (Category B1): abantu bangaqhubekeka behlala emhlabeni lowo kodwa iinkonzo zoluntu bakuzifumana kuqala lo gama besalindele amanye amabakala emkqubo yophuhliso afana nesiqinisekiso sobummi nezindlu
  • Uluhlu uB2 (Category B2): abantu bangahlala emhlabeni lowo okwethutyana lo gama umasipala esakhangela umhlaba aza kubasusa abase kuwo. Ngethuba sesalindile bakhabe befumana iinkonzo zoluntu zokubambisa
  • Uluhlu uC (Category C): abantu kunyanzeleka ukuba basuswe ngokukhawuleza kweindawo abame kuyo bakhangelelwe indawo ulungileyo abangahlaliswa kuyo. Ngenxa yokungalungi komhlaba abame kuwo urhulumente akakwazi nokufaka inkonzo zoluntu zokubambisa.

Nantsi enye indlela yokucinga ngenkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo zoluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi olubizwa informal settlements:

  • U-Akuhanjwa: ngamanye amazwi singathi le yindlela esulungekileyo yokuphuhlisa uluntu, kwindawo abakuyo bengakhange baphazanyiswe. Le into ifane yenzeke kwindawo ezihlala abantu abambalwa ezinomhlaba omhkulu babe begqagqene.
  • Usihamba nje kube kanye: Le ke indlela kuthiwa ukubizwa yi re-blocking apho abantu basuswa nje umzuzwana bevula indlela ukuze iinkonzo zoluntu zifakelwe ezifana nemibhobho yamanzi, njalo njalo. Kuye ke kulungiswe nokuma kweziza zabo ngaxesha linye, baze ke baphinde babuyele ezizeni ezo zabo kwakube kugqityiwe. Kuyenzeka ngamanye amaxesha ukuba kunyanzeleke yonke imizi ekhoyo ekuhlaleni apho isuswe ibhekeliswe, kulungelaniswe iziza khona ukuze kwenziwe iindlela neziza zilungiswe. le ke into kuthiwa ukubizwa yi full re-blocking.
  • Usithutha kabini: le ke inkqubo ikwabizwa njengophuhliso olujikela kwi Transitional Relocation Area (TRA) apho abantu bathuthelwa khona besuswa kwindawo yabo abebehlala kuyo, babe befunelwe umhlaba kwenye indawo nawo osamele ukulungiswa ulungiselelwe uphuhliso nokuhlalwa ngabantu. Ethubeni ke baye baphinde babsuswe kwiTRA basiwe kumhlaba lowo bawufunelweyo.
  • Umasixhume: le ke inkqubo kuxa abantu kufuneka besuswe ngesiwuphe apho bebehlala khona basiwe endaweni entsha apho bafike bazakhele ezinye izindlu ezingekho mgangathweni ngelixesha belinde iinkonzo zophuhliso.

Inkqubo le inamahlelo amathathu angala:

  • Isigaba sukuqala: Isicwangciso-nkqubo
  • Isigaba sesibini: Ukuphunyezwa kweprojekti
  • Isigaba sesithathu: Ukuqukunjelwa kwenkqubo

Ukushwankathela:

  • Isigaba lokuqala – kulapho uMasipala akhuthaza khona ukuba kwakhiwe inkqubo elolu hlobo, ebonisa ukuba kutheni le inkqubo iyeyona elungileyo kwimeko yendawo, ekhangela imali, abanise nendlela engalandelwa ukwakha le nkqubo
  • Isigaba lesibini – apha kulapho uMasipala egxila ekufakeleni inkonzo zoluntu zokuqala ezifana namanzi nezindlu zangasese. Uqalisa kwa kwesi sigaba ukukhupha iziqinisekiso zobummi kubahlali, ngakumbi ukuba abantu abazokususwa kwindawo abemi kuyo njengoko kucacisiwe negntla apha
  • Isigaba sesithathu – kwesi sigaba kufakelwa iinkonzo ezisisigxina, amaxesha amaninzi kufakelwa inkonzo umzi nomzi, kudilizwe ezo bezikhona zimambisile. Kwakhiwa izindlu, kulungiselelwe nokuba abantu bafumane iziqinisekiso zobummi ezisisigxina.

Isigaba sesine – Phambi kokuba ziqale ke ezi zigaba zonke uMasipala kuqala kufuneka enze uphando ekumele lifumanise ukuba indawo leyo izakuphuhliswa ikweliphina ibakala (category). Kukho ukuba umhlaba ulungile ngoko abantu bangahlala kuphuhliswe belapho, kukho ukuba mabasuke, njalo njalo njengoko kucacisiwe ngentla apha kwiintlobo-ntlobo  umasihlale, usithutha, kanye, sithutha-kabini, nomisxhume.

Le nkqubo yokufakelwa kwenkonzo zoluntu zokubambisa neyokukhangela imali yokufaka ezisisigxina kwanomhlaba wabo ekufuneka besusiwe ibizwa njengehlelo lokuqala (Phase 1), kule knqubo yophuhliso lwendawo zokuhlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi. Iinkonzo ezo ke ezithi ziqwalaselwe phantsi kweli hlelo zezifana nezi:

  • Indawo zokukha amanzi acocekileyo zikawonke-wonke
  • Izindlu zangasese zika wonke-wonke
  • Iindledlana nemilimandlela yokubaleka amanzi amdaka
  • Indawo zokukha amanzi okucima umlilo xa kunokuthi kutshe
  • Iindawo zokulahlwa kwenkunkuma nenkonzo zokuthuthwa kwenkunkuma

Ukongeza, ezinye zezinto ezinokufakwa kwa kolu hlelo ingazezi zilandelayo:

  • Ukwakhiwa kwendawana okanye amabalana okudlala abantwana abiyelwe
  • Ngungakhiwa nendawana eliholo yoluntu nokuba yakhiwe ngohlobo olungesosigxina (temporary structure)
  • Kungakhiwa ne-ofisi ejongene nenkqubo le yophuhliso engekho sigxina (temporary)

uMasipala nabahlali abo uphuhliso lwenziwa endaweni yabo bayabonisana ngenkonzo ezidingekayo ezinokukhabe sisakhiwa kwakwisigaba sokuqala.

Kuye kuxhemekeke ekubeni umntu uqwalasela yiphi na imigaqo karhulumente malunga nenkonzo zophuhliso ukuze abe nako ukohlulela ukuba isimiselo malunga nezinga lenkonzo zophuhliso sithini.

Umzekelo, kukhangeleka ngathi isimiselo malunga neenkonzo zamanzi ngomnyaka ka 2001 sasisithi:

  • Amanzi: umntu ngamnye axhamle kangangama 25liter ngemini okanye 6 kilolitre ngenyanga, abe umgama awuhambyo ukusuka endlwini yakhe esiya apho kukhiwa khona amanzi kungafunekanga udlule kuma 200 meters
  • Izindlu zangasese: indlu yangasese kufuneka ikhuselekile, ikhona xa umntu edinga ukuyisebenzisa, imo yayo ikhangeleka, ikwazi ukucoceka, ikwazi ukumelana nemo yezulu eyahlikileyo (imelana neemvula nemimoya evuthuzayo),inendlelayokuba ivumba liphume lingahlali kuyo inazo nedlela zokukhusela izinambuzane ezibangela ukugula ziphume.

Kanti ke i‘Emergency housing programme’ isebenzisa ezi zikhombizi yona:

  • Impompo enye kumzi ngamnye (page 36)
  • Indlu yangasese ibenye Phakathi kwemizi emihlanu (page 36)

Lona ke icandelo lamanzi iDepartment of Water and Sanitation (2017) kwingxelo yalo ebizwa ‘National norms and standards for domestic water and sanitation services – version 3 final’  yakhe ezi zikhombisi malunga namanzi neenkonzo zelindle nangona ke ezi zikhombizi zingekavunywa njengezamkeleke kurhulumente wonke jikelele okwangoku.

Inkonzo zelindle

Okwangoku, indlu yangasese ibe nye Phakathi kwabantu abangama 50 (page 44 kule ngxelo echazwe ngentla ka 2017 draft norms and standards).  Imizi eminzi ihlala abantu abakuma 4-5, xa sisebenzisa lo mqikelelo uyakufumanisa ukuba indlu yangasese enye iyakusetyenziswa yimizi engama 10 – 13. Le ngxelo ikwatsho ke ukuba ezi zindlu zangasese zika wonke-wonke mazikhuseleke, zibesendaweni ekhuselekileyo, zibe nembobo zomoya khona ukuze ivumba nezinambuzane ezinokuza nokugula ziphume, njalo njalo.

Izinga eliphakamileyo ekusetyenzelwa kulo ke ngomnyaka ka2030 lelokuba umzi ngomzi ube nendlu yawo yangasese; inkonzo zikawonke-wonke zipheliswe ze kuthi kea pho kunyanzelekileyo ukuba abantu basebenzise indle yangasese enye kungadluli kubantu abangam 20 indlu nganye ube umzi nomzi uhlala abantu abangama 4 -5.

Amanzi

Ummiselo ngezinga lamanzi okwangoku uthi 1500 litre yamanzi umzi ngomzi ngenyanga nokokuba umzi akufunekanga uhambe umgama odlula 100 meters ukuya kukha amanzi lawo (oku kkufumaneka ku page 22 of walengxelo ichazwe ngentla ka 2017 draft norms and standards). Uyakuqaphela ke ukuba lo mgama wama 100 metres ungaphantsi kwalowo we 200 metres wangomnyaka ka 2001. Apha ke izindlu zangasese zisebenzisa amanzi, kuyanyanzeleka ukuba amanzi ngeniswe umzi nomzi.

Ikwakhona ke immimiselo nangezonye iinkonzo ezifana nokuthuthwa kwenkunkuma, umbane, njalo njalo.

Ukuthuthwa kwenkunkuma

Urhulumente uceba ukuba umzi nomzi ube nezingxobo eimalunga ne 100 litre sokufaka inkunkuma sisetyenziswe yimizi engamashumi – 10 ubuncikane, kwaye yonke inkunkuma ephuma kwindawo ezihlala abantu ezikumgangatho ophantsi isuswe kanye ngeveki.

Umbane

Ngokombane urhulumente uzamela ukuba umzi nomzi ubenombane wawo abazakazibhatalela wona ngokwabo, oku kuquka nemizi ekwindawo ezikumgangatho ophantsi. (with access to 50 kwh of free electricity per household per month).

OoMasipala bohlukene ngendlela abanikezela ngayo iinkonzo zophuhliso, nezinga abazinikezela kulo nalo lohlukile. Ixiseko seseKapa umzekelo sona simmisele ukuba indlu yangasese mayibenye Phakathi kwemizi emihlanu, impompo yamanzi ibenye Phakathi kwemizi engama 25 apho abantu mabahambe umgama ongama 200 metres ukuya kufika empompeni leyo ze inkunkuma ithuthwe kanye ngeveki.

Oomasipala abaninzi, ndiquka nowase Buffalo City, abanayo le mimmiselo icace ngolu hlobo lwaseKapa elikhombisa izinga inkonzo zophuhliso emazibe kulo kwindawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi. Kungoku nje kukhona kusaxoxwayo ngomasipala abaninzi ukuba elona zinga lifanelekileyo kanye leliphi, ngakumbi kwindawo ezo ekuzakufuneka zisusiwe kumhlaba ezime kuwo kuba ungalufanelanga ulwakhiwo lwezindlu ezisisgxina ezingu category B1 noB2 ngokwale ngcaciso ingentla. Okwangoku iingxelo zifumanisa ukuba uninzi lomasipala lunikezela iinkonzo ngolu hlobo:

  • Amanzi: impompo ikhona isetyenziswa ngabantu abaninzi apho umzi nomzi ungafumana ama 25 litre amanzi ngemini aze amanzi abalekayo zibekhona indlela zokuwaqokelela angemi ndaweni-nye.
  • Ucimo lomlilo: indledlana ezikhoyo ekuhlaleni zilungele ukuba izicimi-mlilo zingakwazi ukuhamba hamba Phakathi kwezindlu, zikhona nendawo ezakhelwe ukuba izithuthi zikamasipala ezakhelwe ukucima umlilo zikwazi ukuqhagamishela imibhobho zitsale amanzi.
  • Indlu yangasese: ikhona indlu yangasese esetyenziswa yimizi elinani elithile engekho kude kakhulu ezindlini
  • Amanzi abalekayo: amanzi abalekayo avela kumzi nomzi zikhona indawo zokuwalahla khona ukuze angalahlwa nje Phakathi kwemizi aze nokungcola nezifo
  • Imilimandlela: iindlelana zokuhamba amanzi amdaka namanzi emvula zikhona kwaye zikhuselekile
  • Iindledlana: zikhina iindlelana zokuhamba abantu ngenyawo, zivuliwe, zifanelekile zicacile. Kukhona needlela zokuba izitalato zikhanyiswe khona ukuze abahambi ngenyawo bakhuseleke.
  • Uthutho lwenkunkuma: ikhona indawo ecaileyo apho inkunkuma iqokelelwa khona ze ithuthwe kanye ngeveki
  • Umbane: zikhona izibane ezide ezikhanyisa indawo enkulu ekuhlaleni nasemigaqweni emikhulu. Zikhona nendlela zokuba abantu bakhanyise ezindlwini zabo, zisenthethweni nasemgangathweni ofanelekileyo ongabeki impilo yabantu engciphekweni.

Kubalulekile kakhulu xa kusenziwa uphuhliso lwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi ukuba inkonzo zophuhliso zingabekwa nje naphina, kodwa kuqatshelwe ukuba kuqala indawo leyo ikolupohi uluhlu kumaluhlu ahlelwe nguMasipala (icategory ukutsho). Kwindawo ezikuluhlu uB1 apho indawo kufunyaniswe ukuba ingaphuhliswa kulo mhlaba ime kuwo abantu abazokususwa, inkonzo kufuneka zifakelwe ngohlobo oluncedisanayo nesigaba sokuba zifakelwe isigxina khona ukuze isigaba ngasinye sakhele kesiphambi kwaso. Amahlelo nezigaba zale nkqubo zicacisiwe ngasentla apha.

Kulula ke ukuhlela ukuba inkonzo zibekwe ndawoni kwindawo ezinemizi embalwa egqagqeneyo apho nendlela zokuhamba-hamba zinkulu khona. Kuba lula nokomba kufake imobhobho nezinye izinto kungakhange kuphazanyiswe imizi yabantu. Apho ke izindlu zisondelelene khona akubikho lula ukufaka iinkonzo. Maxa wambi iimpompo ziphela zifakwa ekungeneni kesixeko eso okanye izindlu zangasese zibekwe ndawoni-nye ekupheleni okanye embindini kuxhomekeka ekubeni abantu bazimise njani izindlu zabo. Le nto ke iye yenze abanye abantu babe kudana kunendawo ezikuzo iinkonzo ezo.

Amaxesha amaninzi ke kuye kunyanzeleke ukuba eminye imizi isuswe ibhekeliswe khona ukuze iinkonzo zophuhliso zosondezwe ebantwini.e ndaba yokususwa kwabantu abathile bebhekelela ukuba inkonzo zophuhliso zosindezwe yinto ekumle ukuba abahlali bathethisane ngayo, bayilungise, bathabathe inxaxheba nabo ekubonisaneni ukuba iinkonzo ezi zingema ndawoni,kukhangeliswe abo bantu mabasuswe indawo eyenye yokuhlala.

Indawo esilwihlelo B2 apho abantu basaxhwarhileyo kumhlaba abakuwo ngethuba besakhangelelwa unye indawo abazakusiwa kuyo ngenxa yokuba umhlaba abame kuwo ungakulungelanga ukuba kungakhiwa kuwo, inkonzo ziyafakwa nje kungakhange kwajongisiswa kakhulu ukuba kwakhelwe kuzo xa kusenziwa ezesigxina kodwa ke nalapha kuye kuqatshelwe izinto ezifana nokhuseleko nokuba abantu bakwazi kangangoko ukufikelela kuzo.

Qaphela ukuba urhulumente uyanyanzeliswa ngumgaqo-siseko welizwe ukuba enze inzame zokuba isidima sabantu bonke sikhuselwe enikezela ngenkonzo ezifana namanzi, izindlu zangasese, njalo njalo, abantu bahlale kwindawo ezicocekileyo ezingabagulisiyo bekhuselekile. Urhulumente kumele enze inzameesakhela kwinigudu yakhe rhoqo ukuophuhlisa eli phupha, encedisana nokuphucula impilo yabantu de babe nazo zenzindlu ezikumgangatho ophakamileyo neenkonzo ezisisgxina nazo ezisezingeni eliphakamileyo.

Le nto ke ithetha ukuba nokuba abantu bame kumhlaba ongenguwo okamasipala, ube ungenguwo nokarhulumente, uyanyanzeleka urhulumente ukuba ache iinkonzo zophuhliso kulo ndawo abantu bakuyo. Okokuqala wakha iinkonzo zokubambisa nje, aze ekuhambeni kwethuba asebenzele ukwakha iinkonzo ezisisigxina. Kulapho ke aye alandele izigaba ezichazwe apha zale nkqubo eziquka nokuvavanya umhlaba lowo abantu bame kuwo ukuba ufanelekile na ukuba kungaphuhliswa bekuwo, uyafumaneka kusi ni na, njalo njalo. Izigaba ezichazwe apha zakhiwe ngendlela yokuba urhulumente akwazi

See section 6.3 on page 136 of “Preparing to scale up informal settlement upgrading in South Africa” for more information on providing basic services on land one does not own.

Ngokwemali karhulumente yenkqubo upgrading of informal settlements subsidy quantum, ngokwenyanga kaApril 2018 besele kusele imali engage R30,000 umzi ukwenza izigaba ezingu 1, 2 and 3 zenkqubo yokupohuhliswa kwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi. Kukho ke nemali engama R1,500 umzi  ebekelwe ukuncedisana nemo apho abantu kungafuneka bethuthile kwindawo abame kuyo besiya kuma kenye indawo belungiselela uphuhliso olu. Le mali yeyokuncedisana nedleko ezifana nezokuthutha, ukwakha kwindawo leyo entsha, njalo njalo.

Zikhona ke nezinye inkqubo zikarhulumente ezifana ne-enhanced Peoples Housing Process kwakunye ne-Integrated Residential Development Programme ezinokusetyenziswa nazo kulo hlelo lophuhliso.  Imali yenkxaso yokwakha izindlu okwangoku imi ngaphantsana nje kuma R117,000 umzi. Le ke ijongene nokwakhiwa kwendlu, hayi ukufakelwa kwenkonzo zophuhliso lokuqala (ibasic services ukutsho).

Kwakhona nayo iFinance Linked Individual Subsidy ingasetyenziselwa ukuthenga umhlaba apho izindlu zingakhiwa khona. Le ke imali ifunyanwa ngabantu abaphumeza imigaqo ethile ebekwe ngurhulumente eqwalasela ingeniso yabo, ubummi babo,njalo njalo njengoko besele kuchaziwe ngasentla.

Zimbini ezona Ndlela oomasipala abangafumana ngayo imali yokwenza olu uphuhliso:

  • Umasipala angafumana inkxaso kwi human settlement development grant (HSDG); okanye
  • Kwi urban settlement development grant (USDG) yona efunyanwa ngomasipala abambaxa.

Le yinkxaso ekhutshwa lisebe lemicimbi yezindlu liyinika ingingqi zephondo ukujongana nophuhliso lwendawo abantu abahlala kuzo nolwakhiwo lwesindlu ephondweni ngalinye. Isebe elikwicandelo lephondo kufuneka lona ligqibe ukuba imali lizakuyicazulula njani liyabele nezinye inkqubo ezifana ne Integrate Residential Development Programme, Rural Housing Programme, Enhanced Peoples’ Housing Process, Social Housing kwakunye nezinye. Okwangoku ngurhulumente wephondo ekufuneka ekwabeni kwanke imali-kxaso leyo yezindlu ebele nale knqubo yokuohuhliswa kwendawo abahlala kuzo abantu ezikumgangatho ophantsi.

Akube uMasipala ethumele abacwaningi nosocwepheshe benjineli baqwalasela bezoba bebonisa indlela efanelekileyo yokuphuhlisa indawo abantu abahlala kuyo kwanendlela ezinokufakwa ngayo iinkonzo ezisisigxina, ububanzi bomhlaba umzi ngamnye onokuba bubo, apho iindlela ezinkulu neendledlana zinokuhamba khona, apho izikolo zingama khona, nezinye iinkonzo ezifana nendawo zokukhwela izithuthi zika wonke-wonke, amaziko empilo njalo njalo; zikwancedisa uMasipala ukubala imali ezakufuneka ukwenza lo msebensi wophuhliso. UMasipala uqalisa ngemali anayo ukuphumeza ezinye zize projekti ezithi ziqulunqwe.

Kuye kuxhomekeke ekubeni zime njani izindlu. Kwezinye indawo, ngethamsanqa abantu bazakha izindlu zabo ngendlela eyenza kube lula ukwakhiwa kweendlela zokuhamba izithuthi abantu bengakhange basuswe. Maxa wambi ke kuye kufuneke abantu basuswe ithutyana kulungiswe iindlela, abanye baswaye belungiselela ukuba wonke umntu akwazi ukufumana indawo yokumisa indlu kube khona neendlela ezifanelekileyo. Le ke inkqubo ibizwa I re-blocking okanye ishifting (ukubhekeliswa okanye ukuswayiswa). Ngamanye amaxesha ke kuye kufuneka uMasipala abasuse abantu abase kwindawo yokuxhwarha umzuzwana eyenye ukulungiselela ukufaka ezninye iinkonzo ezifunisa umhlaba omninzana xa zifakwa ezifana nokombelwa kwemibhobho, njalo njalo.

Ngokufanayo ke, abantu abakuluhlu lwendawo zokuhlala olungu B2 apho umhlaba ungafanelanga ukuba kungakhiwa izindlu zesigxina kuwo uMasipala kufuneka efune omnye umhlaba apho abantu bangasuswa bayokuhlaliswa khona ukuze aqalise ukufaka iinkonzo sesigxina khona. Lo nkonzo yokufunwa komnye umhlaba nokuthutha kwabantu baye khona ngendlela esemthethweni nehlelwe kakuhle yenziwa kumahlelo elesibini nelesithathu kule knqubo yophuhliso.

Kumhlaba lowo uMasipala awufumeneyo apho azakuhlalisa khona abantu abasuse kwindawo ezingalungele kuhlala-bantu, inyathelo lokuqala angalithatha lelokuba acande iziza zicace, acande iindlela neendledlana, afake iimpompo zamanzi acocekileyo kwanezindlu zangasese phambi kokuba abantu bahlale. Lo nto yenzela ukuba abantu bahlale kwindawo enazo ezinkonzo zibalulekileyo zokuqala.

Ihlelo lesine ke kulapho uRhulumente athi abonelel ngezindlu okanye anikezele ngenkxaso yokwakhiwa kwezindlu. Ukuze ube nokuzigqatsela ukufumana inkxaso-sibonelelo sezindlu kweli lizwe kufuneka umntu abe akazange wakhe wafumana nkxaso ilolo hlobo ngaphambili, abe ungummi wase Mzantsi Africa orhola umvezo ongaphantsi kwama R3500 ngenyanga.

Ukuba uRhulumente wakha izindlu zohlobo iRDP anikezele abantu iziqinisekiso zobummi eziyi Title Deed, ngaabantu abayifezekisayo le migomo ichazwe ngentla kuphela abaye bakwazi ukuzigqatsela ukuchongelwa olu hlobo. Akhona ke namanye amacandelo uMasipala angankqonkqoza kuwo ukucela imali yokuqhuba olu phuhliso nokwakha izindlu afana neIntegrated Residential Development Programme, iEnhanced Peoples Housing Process kwakunye neFinance Linked Individual Subsidy programme.

Inkxaso iUrban Settlement Development Grant (USDG) ikhutshwa licandelo lezezimala likarhulumente undlunkulu enika oomasipala abambaxa khona ukuze oomasipala aba bakwazi ukufakela iinkonzo zophuhliso zoluntu. Inxenye yale mali isetyenziselwa ukufakela iinkonzo kwezindawo ezingekho kuzo ezi fana nezi sithetha ngazo apha. Ukususela kule minyakana imbalwa idlulileyo urhulumente uye wongeza nemali yokufakelwa kwemibane kwindawo ezingenazo kule ngxowa yeUSGD. Uninzi lwendawo ezingenambane ke zezo sithetha ngazo apha, ezikumgangatho ophantsi.

Icandelo lemicimbi yezezindlu elikumasipala liye lisebenzisane namanye amacandelo kamasipala ajongene nenkonzo ngenkonzo zophuhliso ezifana namacandelo amanzi nelindle, icandelo lendlela, icandelo lenjineli ilijingana neenkonzo ezimbaxa nezinkulu, icandelo lombane, elothutho lwenkunkuma njalo njalo. Onke ke lamacandelo atsala imali kule ngxowa yeUSDG. Kungoko icanelo lemicimbi yezindlu kumele liqinisekise ukuba izicwangciso zamanye amacandelo la ziyancedisana nenkono yophuhliso lwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi. Umzekelo, ukuba indawo ethile ihlelwe ukuba ikuluhlu uB1, abe umasipala efuna ukufakela iinkonzo zethutyana kwindawo leyo, kumele aqinisekise ukuba izicwangciso zamasebe achaphazelekayo kwiinkonzo ezo afuna ukuzifakela kwindawo leyo kuba imali nabantu bokufakela ezo nkonzo bazakube izakube iphuma kwimali eyabelwe elo sebe ngumasipala. Imali yokuthutho lwenkunkuma kwamasipala iphuma kwisebe lothutho-nkunkuma hayi kwisebe lamanzi okanye elemicimbi yezindlu. Kungoko izicwangciso zamasebe kufuneka zithungelene ukuze iinkonzo zifike ngendlela eluntwini.

Kwimigaqo yokusetyenziswa kwemali yeUSDG urhulumente unyanzelisa ukuba phambi kokuba amasebe ngamasebe kamasipala acebe ngeenkonzo afuna ukuzifakela nyaka nonyaka ngemali leyo ayabelweyo, aqale aqwalasele ukuba iinjongo zikamasipala zokuphucula iindawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi zithini, aze amacandelo ngamacandelo lawo ahlele iinkonzo ezincedisanayo nalo mbono kamasipala hayi ezikhabanayo.

Urhulumente kandlunkulu usaceba ukuhlela iknqubo ezakubizwa  Upgrading of Informal Settlements Partnership Grant (UISPG) – aknaye into ebukufana naleyo – apho oomasipala abambaxa bezakufumana iknxaso khona yokufezekisa ezinye iimfuno zabo kwinkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi angakwaziyo okwangoku ukuzenza ngeUSDG ngokubanjwa yimiqathango yayo neemfuno ekusafuneka zifezekiswe ngeUSDG ezenza kube nzima ukwenza ezinye izinto. Umzekelo, imali yeUSDG ayikwazi ukusetyenziselwa izinto eifana nokunikezelwa kweziqinisekiso zobummi bomhlaba kubahlali bendawo nagona lo nto kuvunyelwana ngurhulumente ukuba ibalulekile.

Inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo zokuhlala ezikumgangatho ophantsi ayijongenanga nokufumaneka komhlaba neenkonzo zophuhliso lokuqala nje kuphela. Ezinye izinto ezibalulekileyo kwinkqubo le zezi:

  • Ukufakwa kwenkonzo zamanzi kawonke-wonke, indlela ezinkulu, nombane umzi nomzi
  • Ukwakhiwa kwamaholo oluntu, izikolo, ikliniki, indawo zabezomthetho abafana namaPolisa, njalo njalo
  • Indawo kufuneka icocwe emveni kokuba iphuhlisiwe, izinto ezonakalayo zilungiswe igcinwe isengangathweni ophezulu
  • Indawo zoshishino nazo zibalulekile khona ukuze abantu kungafuneki bahambe imigama emide bekhwela ngemali ezinkulu ukuze bafikelel kumashishini anokufezekisa iimfuno zabo, ngakumbi ezi zemihla ngemihla ezifana nevenkilana, indawo zokulungiswa kwemoto, indawo ezithingisayo, njalo njalo
  • Kwakhona abantu kufuneka befunde izakhono bakwazi ukuziphilisa, ngoko ke amaziko emfundo nendawo zokufunda izakhono ziyinxenye yophuhliso olu
  • Abahlali kufuneka bekhuthaziwe bancediswe bathabathe inxaxheba kangangoko kuphuhliso olu. Amaxesha amaninzi ke umsebenzi onje uye wenziwe ngamaziko oluntu ophuhliso asekuhlaleni

Abahlali ke ngokuye bethabatha inxaxheba kuphuhliso olu bathi nabo bakhankanye ezinye iinkonzo zophuhliso ekumele ziqwalaselwe njengenxenye yophuhliso olu.

Inkqubo iCommunity Works Programme (CWP) ihambelana kakhulu nophuhliso lwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi. ICWP yinkqubo exhaswa ngurhulumente kandlunkulu nehlelwa licandelo lemicimbi yomasipala nolawulo lwemveli. Irhulumente esebenzisana nemibutho yophuhliso yoluntu uye akhangele abantu ekuhlaleni abaqeqeshele le nkqubo. Imisebenzi efanele ukwenziwa ngaba bantu baphangela kolu hlelo iye ikhonjwe baze bancediswe ekuyenzeni. Abasebenzi ke aba bohlulwa babe ngamaqela amabini, qela ngalinye lisebenza intsuku zibembini evekini liphumle kungene elinye. Imisebenzi ke ekuxhaphake ukuba yenziwe ngabasebenzi be CWP yile:

  • Ukwakha imilimandlela
  • Ukwakha izindlu zangasese zikawonke-wonke
  • Ukufakela iimpompo zamanzi zikawonke wonke
  • Ukwakha imijelo yokuhamba amanzi
  • Kwanokulungisa izinto ezonakeleyo ekuhlaleni nokudiba imingxuma ezindleleni

Maxa wambi abantu abasebenzela iCWP bancedisa nakwinkonzo zentlala-kahle ezifana nezi:

  • Ukukhathalelwa kwabantu abagula kakhulu nabadala emakhayeni abo
  • Ukwenziwa kwezitiya zemifuno zokunceda indawo zokhuseleko lwabantwana nabantu abadala ekuhlaleni, kwanokunceda abantu abangathabathi ntweni nabahlupheka kakhulu;

Ezendalo abasebenzi beCWP abancedisa kuko kokufana noku:

  • Uthutho lwenkunkuma ephakathi kweendawo ekuhlalwa kuzo neendawo ezidlala abantwana;
  • Ukususa izityalo ezinobungozi Phakathi koluntu
  • Ukutyala imithi, njalo njalo

Ukuqinisekiswa kubummi ngokusemthethweni yindlela yokuqwalasela nokuhlonipha uqhagamshelwano lwabantu kunye nomhlaba lowo bahlala kuwo. Xa kea bantu bengenaso isiqinisekiso sibummi kwindawo abakuyo bahlala besengciphekweni belindele ukuba bangasuswananini bebambekile ekwenzeni inzame neendlela zokubonisa ubudlelwane babo noqhagamshelwano olomeleleyo nomhlaba lowo. Abantu xa benesiqinisekiso sobummi emhlabeni, bakha izindlu ngenjongo, belungiselela isizalo sabe, bejonge ukuphuhlisa iintsapho zabo. Umhlaba bawusebenzisela ukufezekisa amaphupha neminqweno yabo yangoku, neyexa elizayo. Xa ke esi siqinisekiso singekho, kuba nzima kubemmi kulo mhlaba ukuwusebenzisa umhlaba ngolu hlobo.

Xa abantu beqinisekile ngobummi babo emhlabeni, baye bawazi namalungelo abo kumhlaba lowo bawakhusele. Xa esisiqinisekiso singekho namalungelo abo awacaci, kunzima nokuwakhusela. Nto leyo ebeka abantu esichengeni sokuhlukunyezwa. Iinkonzo zophuhliso zibalulekile, kwaye zililungelo Labantu njengoko kucacisiwe kumgaqo-siseko welizwe okhankanywa apha ngentla. Isizathu sokuqala sokumma emhlabeni ebantwini ayibi kukufumana iinkonzo zophuhliso, kodwa kukuzama ubomi obunesidima. Umhlaba ke uyeyona nto inkulu izisa isidima kubantu. Xa ubummi babo bungakhuselekanga nokuba iinkonzo zingakwizinga eliphezulu ukuba bahleli ngoloyiko lokuba bangasuswa nanini isidima sabo sisengciphekweni.

Le mizekelo ilandelayo ibonisa indlela ezahlukeneyo urhulumente anganikezela ngayo isiqinisekiso sobummi bomhlaba kwabo beme kumhlaba abangenasiqinisekiso sabummi kuwo njengenxenye yenkqubo yophuhliso lwendawo ezihlala uluntu ezikumgangatho ophantsi.

Indima yabahlali

  • Abahlali kwindawo apho banenasiqinisekiso sabummi bomhlaba sisemthethweni, nalapho behlala kwindawo ukumgangatho ophantsi bangathabatha manyathelo ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ubummi babo bayabuqinisa. Enye yezinto abanoikuzenza kukuseka ikomiti yokuhlala emayiqwalasela ezentlalo. Ikomiti leyo ingaqala ngokwakha uluhlu lwamagama abemmi balo ndawo, kwanezinye izinto ezibalulekileyo ukuba zazeke kuyo malunga nedawo leyo. Umzekelo, ubukhulu beziza zabemi balo ndawo, ngabaphi abanenkonzo zophuhliso ingabaphi abangenazo; njalo njalo.
  • Olu luhlu lubalulekile kakhulu kuba indawo ezininzi ezikumgangatho ophantsi apho abantu bahlala khona azinazo idilesi. Ngoko ke umthetho uvumela ukuba inkokheli yendawo kumasipala wasekuhlaleni ebizwa uKansila, ukuba ashicilele incwadi engqina indawo yokuhlala yommi lowo. Isiqinisekiso sobummi sokuqala aye asebenze ngaso uKhansila lowo luluhlu lwabahlali bendawo olwakhiwe ngabahlali bendawo abo.
  • Okwesibini, olu luhlu luye luncede xa kukho abantu abangenelele mva endaweni leyo, amaxesha amaninzi abangenelele ngokuse beve ukuba kukho phuhliso lwenzekayo kulo ndawo. Ukuqinisikisa ukuba abantu abebefike bahlala kuqala kulo ndawo abaphangelwa ngabantu abafika bumini kuye kukhangelwe kuluhlu olo alwakhiwe ngabahlali.
  • Indima yokwakhiwa koluhlu lwabahlali kwa nemiqathangoi nemimiselo emayilawule indlela abahlali abafuna ukuhlalisana ngayo ibaluleke kakhulu ngakumbi kwindawo enabantu abaninzi, abangazaniyo, abasuka kwindawo-ngendawo, abakhule ngendlela ezahlukileyo, bekholelwa kwizinto ezahlukileyo. Into eye ibadinabise abantu abanjalo kukuvana ngendlela amabahlaisane ngayo khona ukuze nofike mva afike ebona indlela ekwenziwa ngayo nekuhlelwe ngayo kwindawo leyo.

Indima kamasipala

  • Umasipala angayincedisa kakhulu into yokuqinisekiswa kobummi babantu xa enokuthi ache umgaqo-nkqubo (le nto kuthiwa yi Policy), wokuqinisekiswa kobummi babahlali okusemthethweni nokulibambela lenkqubo yokuqinisekiswa kobummi obubusisigxina, le nto eyaziwa ngokuba yiTitle Deed. Ukufumaneka kwesiqinisekiso sobummi esisisigxina kuthabatha ixesha elide, iminyaka, futhi ininzi into eye ifuneke xa kusetyenzwa lo nto. Lo gama ke umasipala ezamana neenzame zokuohuhlisa indawo de ibe kwizinga lokuba angafaka isicelo seziqinisekiso sobummi ezisisigxina, unako ukukhabe ebanika iziqinisekiso zobummi zethutyana abantu.
  • Lo mgaqo-knqubo ke ngowokukhomba indlela umasipala aceba ukuyenza ngayo le nto, ekwacacisa namalungelo abahlali abaya kuba nawo phantsi kwesosiqinisekiso baya kusinikwa ngumasipala sethutyana
  • Umgaqo-nkqubo lowo kumele ukuba ucacise nendlela ekufuneka abahlali benze ngayo ukuze babe nokuhlolwa ngumasipala ukuba bakufanele na ukufumana ezi ziqinisekiso. Izinto ke ezo umasipala azikhangelayo ebantwini abo xa ehlola evavanya izicela zabo zimelwe ukuba zicaciswe zibe selubala kulo mgaqo-nkqubo.
  • Ethubeni ke umasipala angasebenzisa ezi zingqinisiso kwizicwangciso zakhe zophuhliso lwendawo, esazi ncakasana inani labahlali balo ndawo nto leyo engenza kube lula nokuhlela ubukhulu beziza ukuba bengangakanani kulo ndawo.
  • Ethubeni ke njengoko sekutshiwo, umasipala angakhela phezu kwezi ziqinisekiso zethutyana xa esenza ezisisigxina ezibizwa iTitle Deeds.

Le yinkqubo yophuhliso olwenziwa ngurhulumente ngoikugunyaziswa ngumgaqo-siseko welizwe othi wona wonke ubani kweli lizwe unelingelo lokuhlala kwindawo efanelekileyo, ekhuselekileyo ehlei ngesidima. Imkqubo le yakhel;we ukuba urhulumente asebenzisane nabahlali, namashishini asekuhlaleni namanye amaziko ophuhliso. Izezigaba ngezigaba apho inxaxheba yabo bonke icaciswa khona. Okokuwala, uMasipala kufuneka akube eyibonile indawo leyo ahlala uluntu ekumgangatho ophantsi ayivavanye ukuba ikuliphi na uluhlu, kukho indawo ezinokupohuhliswa kumhlaba lowo zime kuwo, kukho ezimi kumhlaba ongafanelekanga nekumele zisusiwe.

  • Kubantu ekungekho mfuneko yakuba basuke, apho umhlaba ulungileyo urhulumente angaqalisa ukufakela iinkonzo zoophuhliso lokuqala. Le yindima yokuqala kolu phuhliso, ukuba abantu bazifumane inkonzo zophuhliso. Xa umhlaba ulungele uphuhliso umasipala akafakeli nje iinkonzo, kodwa kumele aqwalasele ukuba inkonzo ezo zingakwazi na ukuphuhliseka ekuhambeni kwethuba, afakele inkonzo ngohlobo oluxhasa ulwakhiwo lwezindlu, indlela, nezinye iinkonzo zophuhliso.

Apho abantu beme kumhlaba ungafanelanga ukuba kungakhiwa izindlu zesigxina kuwo uMasipala kufuneka efune omnye umhlaba apho abantu bangasuswa bayokuhlaliswa khona ukuze aqalise ukufaka iinkonzo sesigxina khona. Lo nkonzo yokufunwa komnye umhlaba nokuthutha kwabantu baye khona ngendlela esemthethweni nehlelwe kakuhle yenziwa kumahlelo elesibini nelesithathu kule knqubo yophuhliso. Kanti ke ukuba umhlaba lowo abantu beme kuwo awufanelekanga kodwa ke babe abantu bengekho ngciphekweni okwakaloku nje, umasipala kufuneka abe afakela inkonzo zophuhliso kule ndawo abantu bahleli kuyo lo gama esakhangela omnye umhlaba. Ezi ke inkonzo azifakelayo zezethutyana, zokubambisa.

Kumhlaba lowo uMasipala awufumeneyo apho azakuhlalisa khona abantu abasuse kwindawo ezingalungele kuhlala-bantu, inyathelo lokuqala angalithatha lelokuba acande iziza zicace, acande iindlela neendledlana, afake iimpompo zamanzi acocekileyo kwanezindlu zangasese phambi kokuba abantu bahlale. Lo nto yenzela ukuba abantu bahlale kwindawo enazo ezinkonzo zibalulekileyo zokuqala.

Ihlelo lesine ke kulapho uRhulumente athi abonelele ngezindlu okanye anikezele ngenkxaso yokwakhiwa kwezindlu. Ukuze ube nokuzigqatsela ukufumana inkxaso-sibonelelo sezindlu kweli lizwe kufuneka umntu abe akazange wakhe wafumana nkxaso ilolo hlobo ngaphambili, abe ungummi wase Mzantsi Africa orhola umvezo ongaphantsi kwama R3500 ngenyanga.  Ukuba uRhulumente wakha izindlu zohlobo iRDP anikezele abantu iziqinisekiso zobummi eziyi Title Deed, le inkqubo asiyiyo le yophuhliso lwendawo ezikumgangatho ophansti lwe upgrading of informal settlements. Izindlu zona abantu bayazifuna akukho monakalo xa zisakhiwa, kodwa ke urhulumenet akanayo ngoku imali yokwakhela wonke ubani Odinga indlu izindlu, kungoko kekhangelwe ndlela zimbi zokuphuhlisa uluntu olungaphandle kwezindlu nje zeRDP.

Inkqubo yokubuyekezwa kwemihlaba ijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba abantu abamnyama ababengavunyelwa ngurhulumente wocalulo ukuba babe ngabanini bomhlaba nababesuswa kwimihlaba ekwindawo izilungileyo apho imfuyo nolimo lulunga khona. Urhulumente wenkululeko uzama kangangoko ukuqinisekisa ukuba abemmi boMzantsi Afrika banamathuba alinganayo okuba ngabanini bomhlaba kwanokuqinisekisa ukuba imali ayisetyenziswa njengesixhobo esitsha sokuvimbela abantu abasokolayo amathuba okuba ngabanini bomhlaba. Kungenxa yesisizathu kwinkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo oluhlala kuzo uluntu ezokumgangatho ophantsi kubalulekile ukuba abantu banganeli nje ukunikwa inkonzo zophuhliso kodwa ubunini bomhlaba babo buqinisekiswe. Lo nto ingqamene nenjongo zikarhulumente zokubuyekeza abantu abamnyama ngomhlaba.

Ewe, ukuphuculwa kwenkqubo yamatyotyombe kwikhowudi yezindlu kuthiwe le nkqubo “iyakusebenza nakwimeko apho uluntu luzakufuduselwa khona ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukeneyo. … Amagatya ale nkqubo asebenza ngokulinganayo kuzo zombini iindawo zokuhlala ezihlaziyiweyo kunye nendawo yokufudukela kwenye indawo. ” (s2.2 iimbumbulu yesibini)

Oku kuthetha, umzekelo, ukuba urhulumente angabeka izindlu zangasese kunye nemibhobho yamanzi kwisiza esitsha esingenanto kwaye aphawule iziza zokuba abantu baqhubele phambili ukuze bakwazi ukuzakhela izindlu zabo zethutyana. Ngale ndlela bobabini abantu abahlala ematyotyombeni kunye nabantu abafudukela kwisiqwenga somhlaba esitsha baqala kwinqanaba elifanayo ngeenkonzo ezisisiseko kunye nelungelo lokuhlala olusisiseko.

Akucaci gca ukuba inkqubo yokuphuculwa kwamatyotyombe ingasetyenziselwa ukuhlalisa abantu kumhlaba ongenanto ukuba ngaba abakahlali ematyotyombeni. Nangona kunjalo, kungaphikiswa ukuba kwilinge ‘lokuhamba phambili kwengxaki yamatyotyombe’ nokwenza umhlaba ubekhona ukuze abantu bahlale ngendlela elawulekileyo necwangcisiweyo, inkxaso-mali ye-UISP ingasetyenziswa ngurhulumente ubuncinci ukubonelela ngesiseko sethutyana iinkonzo kunye nokwamkelwa nolawulo lwemvume yokuhlala kubantu abafudukela kulo mhlaba.

Abanye bakubiza oku kuhlaliswa komhlaba okulawulwayo okanye i-MLS. Ungafumana ulwazi oluthe kratya kwi-MLS apha

Umasipala nokuba ngombaxa nokuba ngomncinci into yokuqala ke ekufuneka ayenze xa elungiselela ukuphuhlisa indawo zokuhlala ezikumgangatho ophantsi kukuqala aqwalasele zonke ezi ndawo, ekhangela ukuba indawo ezimi kuyo injani. Kukho indawo ezakhelwe kumhlaba ongafanelekanga, apho amanzi abaleka khona okanye apho iindonga zivuleka khona. Zininzi ke izizathu ezenza ukuba indawo ibe ayifanelekanga ukuba abantu bangahlala kuyo. uMasipala ke kufuneka eqale wenza olu hlolo eqwalasela ukuba ngabaphi abantu abame kwindawo ekuzakufuneka besusiwe kuzo, ingabaphi abantu abame apho kunokuphuhliswa khona bengakhange kufuneke basuswe. Olu phando lubaluleke kakhulu kuba kulo kuqulathe ubunzulu bendlela emaluhlelwe ngalo uphuhliso olo nemali engafuneka, nezivumelwano ekuzakufuneka kuvunyelwene kuzo.

Ukuba kufumaniseke ukuba indawo leyo beme kuyo abantu ikulungele ukuba kungakhiwa izindlu kuhlalwe isigxina kuyo, nokuba kufunyaniswe ukuba umhlab lowo abantu beme kuwo ngokaMasipala, indawo leyo ke iye ibekwe kuluhlu lokuqala (category A ukutsho). Ukuba indawo leyo ikulungele ukuba abantu bangahlala kuyo kodwa ibe isafuna ukusetyenzwa kakhulu ngaphambi kokuba iinkonzo zoluntu zifakwe ezifana namanzi nezindlu zangasese neendlela, umhlaba lowo ube ungekho phansti kukaMasipala kwaye ungachongelwanga kuhlala bantu ngokwezicwangciso zikamasipala ekuthiwa yiZoning, indawo leyo ibekwa kuluhlu uB1 (category B1).

Ukuba abantu kufuneka besisuwe kwindawo abahleli kuyo kuba ingakufanelanga ukuba kungakhiwa kuhlalwe kuyo, kodwa babe bengekho ngozini okwakaloku nje, kube kungekho nendawo apho uMasipala angabaxhwarhisa khona, lo ndawo ke ibekwa kuluhlu uB2 (category B2).

Ukuba indawo abahleli kuyo abantu ibeka ubomi babo engciphekweni ngeyona ndlela ebangela nokuba ukususwa kwabo kungxamiseke kakhulu ngenxa yemeko abahleli phantsi kwazo ezinobungozi, abe noMasipala enawo umhlaba abangasuka baye kuwo, ube nomhlaba lowo ulungiselelwe ukuba abantu bangahlala kuwo, indawo leyo ibekwa kuluhlu uC (Category C).

Ekubeni uMasipala eziqwalasele iindawo abahlal kuzo abantu, azihlele ngokoluhlu ngoluhlu ezikulo ngokwale ngcaciso ingentla, kufuneka acwangcise ukuba inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwazo iindawo ezo izakuhamba njani, ezakuqala ngeyiphi na indawo kumaluhlu onke awahlelilelyo. Inkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo abantu abahlala kuzo ezikumgangatho ophantsi ifuna imali. uMasipala kufuneka ecwangcise ngokwemali anayo, nto leyo engenza ukuba kufuneke ezinye indawo zilinde ithutyana phambi kokuba ziphuhliswe ngokwenkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwendawo ezikumgangatho ophantsi eyaziwa njenge informal settlement upgrading programme kaMasipala.

Kwindawo eziphawulwe njengezikuhluhlu uB1 (ezo zisemhlabeni ofanele ikqubo le) nezo ziku B2 (ezi kumhlaba ongafanelekanga kodwa zibe zingekho ngciphekweni okwangoku), uMasipala kufuneka aqale iinzame zokufakela iinkonzo zoluntu kumhlaba lowo abantu bahleli kuwo, ezi ke ingazinkonzo zokubambisa lo gama esakhangela imali yokufakela ezisigxina umzi nomzi okanye esafuna umhlaba wokubahlalisa kuwo abantu abakuhlelo uB2.

Urhulumente wesizwe ufuna ukuba oomasipala babandakanye uphuhliso kunye nokuzalisekiswa kwezicwangciso zokuphila kuphuculo lwenkqubo yamatyotyombe.

Urhulumente uyakuqonda ukuba ukuphuculwa kwamatyotyombe asikokubonelela nje ngeenkonzo, iziza kunye nezindlu, kodwa kuquka nokuphucula iimeko zentlalo nezoqoqosho zabantu.

Ubomi yinto umntu ayenzayo ukuze aphile kwaye ngethemba lokuphumelela kwindawo ethile nakwimeko ethile. Isicwangciso sokuziphilisa sibonisa into ezakwenziwa ngumasipala, ngentsebenziswano noluntu nabanye abathathi-nxaxheba, abaza kwenza ukuphucula iimeko zentlalo nezoqoqosho zabantu. Ngamanye amagama, yintoni eza kwenziwa ukudala imisebenzi, ukunciphisa intlupheko, ukunciphisa ulwaphulo-mthetho, ukuphucula imfundo, ukuphucula impilo, ukuxhasa abantu abaphila ne-HIV / aids kunye nezinye izifo, ukubonelela ngokutya, ukujongana nobundlobongela obusekelwe kwisini, ukukhusela okusingqongileyo nezinye izinto ezininzi .

Xa esenza isicwangciso sokuziphilisa umasipala kufuneka ajonge ubuthathaka kunye nezothuso abajamelana nazo abantu abahlala ematyotyombeni.

Izothuko zizehlo ngesiquphe ezinokuchaphazela umntu kakubi

  • Ukothuka kwabantu – ukugula, ingozi
  • Umothuko wendalo – izikhukula, imililo
  • Ukothuka kwezoqoqosho – ukuphulukana nomsebenzi, amaxabiso okutya kunye nezothutho enyuka ngequbuliso, njalo njalo
  • Izothuso ekuhlaleni –ukungqubana kunye nobundlobongela kubandakanya iimfazwe zamaqela emigewu kunye nobundlobongela obusekelwe kwisini

Ukuba sesichengeni kuqondwa njengamathuba okuba sesichengeni sobungozi okanye bothuke. Ukuba sesichengeni kubandakanya

  • Ukungabinamali yaneleyo
  • Ukungabinako ukutya okwaneleyo namanzi
  • Ukungabikho kogutyulo lwelindle olufanelekileyo, ukuthuthwa kwenkunkuma kunye nombane
  • Ukuhlala kude namaziko, imisebenzi kunye neenkqubo zenkxaso ezinikezelwa ngurhulumente neecawe njalo njalo
  • Ukusokola ukufumana iimfuno ezizezinye
  • Ukuphila nesiphene sokukhubazeka

Oku kubonisa ukuba abantu bajongana neengxaki ezininzi mihla le, hayi iingxaki ezihambelana nokusilela kwenkonzo kunye nezindlu kuphela. Intlanganisela yezi ngxaki yenza ukuba kube nzima ebantwini ukuba bazive benokufikelela ebomini obungcono kubo, kwiintsapho zabo nakubamelwane.

Xa kuphuhliswa izicwangciso zokuphila umasipala kunye nabachaphazelekayo ababandakanyekayo kufuneka bajonge ukuba zeyiphi na izakhono kunye nezixhobo abantu abanokuzisebenzisa kwaye bakhele kuzo kumalinge abo okuphucula ubomi babo.

Ezi zakhono zibandakanya izinto ezibonakalayo okanye eziphathekayo kunye nezinto ezingezizo eziphathekayo okanye izakhono zasekuhlaleni. Kukho ubuncinci izakhono ezintlanu (okanye abanye abantu abazibiza ondoqo) ekufuneka umntu aziphicothe xa esenza isicwangciso sokuphila:

  • Izakhono zendalo – umhlaba, imithi, amanzi, njalo njalo
  • Izakhono eziphathekayo – amanzi, ucoceko, iindlela, iiteksi, njalo njalo
  • Izakhono zabantu – Izakhono zokwenza, ulwazi, ubuchule bokusebenza, njalo njalo
  • Izakhono zentlalo – amaqela abantu, uxhumano, ubudlelwane, njalo njalo
  • Izakhono zexabiso eziyimali – ulondolozo lwemali, iimali-mboleko, iintlawulo, njalo njalo

Amatyotyombe angakuphucula ukufikelela kubomi obungcono ngokuqinisa izakhono:

  • Izakhono zabantu – Ukuphuculwa kwempilo kunye nokuncitshiswa kwemingcipheko yezempilo (umzekelo. Ukunikeza amanzi nococeko). Ukwandiswa kwezakhono nolwazi ngokusebenzisa iinkqubo zokuthatha inxaxheba
  • Izakhono zentlalo – Ukuziva koluntu likwimo esisigxina ngokuhlala ngokukhuselekileyo; ukufikelela okuphuculweyo kwiinkonzo zenkxaso; Ukwakhiwa kothungelwano ngokuthatha inxaxheba kwabahlali kunye nokuxhotyiswa
  • Izakhono zendalo – Ukuphuculwa kwendalo esingqongileyo ngokubonelelwa ngeenkonzo zamanzi nococeko, iinkonzo zokususa inkunkuma, imijelo yamanzi emvula kunye namandla ombane
  • Izakhono eziphathekayo – Ukunikezelwa kweenkonzo ezisisiseko ezifana namanzi, ucoceko, idreyina, ukufikelela kwizithuthi zikawonke-wonke, umbane kunye nokulayita kwendawo
  • Izakhono eziyimali-Ukuhlala okukhuselekileyo njengeyona nto kugxilwe kuyo kutyalo-mali; idilesi esisigxina iphucula ukufikelela kwizibonelelo zebhanki; ukuphuculwa kwamathuba engqesho ngokubonelelwa kwezothutho, izibonelelo zoqoqosho lwasekhaya, kunye neenkqubo zokuthatha ingxaxheba.

Umntu okanye uluntu olunokuziphilisa okuzinzileyo lolu:

  • ndikwazi ukumelana nokuchacha kumothuko
  • bangaxhomekeki kakhulu kubantu bangaphandle ukuba babenzele izinto
  • bangagxili ikakhulu kwiingxaki nakwizinto abangenazo
  • bayazi kwaye bakhela kwizinto zexabiso esele benazo
  • kugxile ekuphuculeni okanye ubuncinci ekugcineni amandla okuzenzela abo
  • kucace ngombono abazabalazela ukuya kuwo
  • ukusebenza nabanye ngendlela eyakhiweyo ukufezekisa umbono wabo.
  • ukufunda kumava abo nakwabanye ‘kwaye ngokuqhubekayo bezabalazela ukwenza ngcono ngokwabelana ngamava abo kunye nokunceda abanye abakwiimeko ezifanayo kunye nokulandela iindlela ezifanayo.

Ukufumana indlela yokuphila ezinzileyo akukho lula kwaye la manqaku alandelayo kufuneka agcinwe engqondweni:

  • Umntu kufuneka aqonde ukuba kuhlala kukho ukhuphiswano lwezixhobo ezinqongopheleyo
  • Ungenelelo olwahlukeneyo lokuphucula amatyotyombe nokuphucula indlela yokuphila lunakho ukuthanda lukhethe abanye hayi abanye
  • Iminatha yokhuseleko ingafuneka kwabo bahlelelekileyo nabasesichengeni

Iinkcukacha ezizotyelwe eli candelo zivela:

Ukuziphilisa

Inkonzo yokuphuhliswa kweendawo abantu abahlala kuzo ezikumgangatho ophantsi alujongenanga nje nokwakhiwa kwezindlu, kodwa ke lujolise ekuphuculweni kwemeko yokuphila kwabantu. Maxa wambi indlu nje kuphela ayenelanga ukuphucula iimpilo zabantu. Ngoko ke iindlela zokuba abantu baziphilise ziye zikhangelwe nazo njengenxenye yokuphuhliswa kweendawo abantu abahlala kuzo ezikumgangatho ophantsi.

Okokuqala isicwangciso-nkqubo sophuhliso siyakhiwa, sona esithi sibonise iinzame namatile-tile abahlali, uMAsipala namanye amaziko namasebenze abazakuwenza ukukhuthaza uphuhliso kwindawo leyo. Esi sicwangciso-nkqubo sibonisa imigudu ezakwenziwa ngabo bonke aba bebambisene ukulwa ubundlobongela nendlala bekhuthaza intlala-kahle, nempilo entle, bebambisana nenzame zokulwisana nokuxhasa abantu abaphila nentsholongwane ezifana neHIV/aids, TB, nezinye.

Information drawn for this section drawn from:

Kukho iiwebhusayithi ezimbalwa eziqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuphuculwa kwamatyotyombe eMzantsi Afrika. Oku kubandakanya:

Nceda uqhagamshelane nathi ku info@afesis.org.za ukuba unolwazi ngayo nayiphi na indawo apho unokufumana khona ulwazi malunga nokuphuculwa kwamatyotyombe.

There are only a few websites that collect information on the upgrading of informal settlements in South Africa.  These include:

Please contact info@afesis.org.za if you know of any other places where you can find information on the upgrading of informal settlements.

To return to the main Afesis-corplan page on the upgrading of informal settlements click here.